2017 年 2017 巻 37 号 p. 92-114
In February 2016, European Council agreed upon the Special Decision for the UK, which would hold BREXIT referendum. The content of the decision would become a disadvantage for Eastern European countries and violate EU citizens’ equality criteria. Why did Eastern European countries tolerate? Why did not other Western European countries dispute this content? In order to account for these questions, I explore the logic of bargaining dynamics that bridges the issues of internal migration and transnational posted workers.
Main discussion materials are the political process of two EU directive drafts. The preferences of major political parties of UK, France, Germany and Poland are examined mainly on the results of voting behaviors at the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers. As a result, the following (A) and (B) are presented, along with the logic of bargaining mechanics that stretchily affected the Special Decision in February 2016.
(A) Regarding the Eastern European countries, UK Conservative government, while giving losses in terms of internal migration, tried to give benefits in terms of transnational posted workers. On the other hand, French Socialist government, to the Eastern countries, while giving losses in terms of transnational posted workers, tried to guarantee benefits in terms of internal migration. The strategies to the Eastern countries by both UK and French governments, despite their opposite composition, were common in terms of protectionism of their own country. UK Conservative Party, in collaboration with the Eastern European countries, have opposed to the “posted workers directive” which had been strongly desired by French Socialist Party from the viewpoint of French own protectionism, however, eventually UK Conservatives turned to agree and realize French Socialists’ hope. As a return of this, French Socialist government has tolerated the UK requirements including justification of discriminatory measures against EU internal immigrants in February 2016 Special Decision.
(B) In the process of negotiating “posted workers directive”, the Polish Tusk government, originally in cooperation with UK Conservative party, betrayed UK and ultimately sided with French Socialist Government. The reason for this was that the French Government gave a promise to establish the “Immigrants’ rights promotion directive”. It would be beneficial to Poland, however, had uncertainty in establishment. The reason why Poland, one of Eastern European countries, accepted UK requirements in February 2016 Special Decision can be understood as a price of betrayal against UK Conservative Party during the negotiation process above mentioned.