2019 年 2019 巻 39 号 p. 126-152
Securing the connection to power transmission and distribution networks and promoting new entries into the electricity market are crucial for the rapid expansion of renewable energy sources （RES）. The EU’s energy policies guarantee the connection to power transmission and distribution networks and entry into the electricity market for RES in order to increase the amount of RES in EU countries.
The priority measures for RES are especially important. However, there are two technical terms that describe priority measures. Firstly, “Priority Access” mentioned in the Renewable Energy Directive in 2001 （Directive 2001/77/EC） and secondly, “Priority Connection” as described in the RES Directive in 2009 （Directive 2009/28/EC）.
This article examines what the two technical terms mean in relation to the development of the concept of priority measures in the RES Directives in 2001 and 2009.
Three procedures of Priority Access were established in Directive 2001/77/EC: 1） priority connecting to the grid, 2） priority access to the electricity markets and 3） priority access in case of congestion. Thus, Priority Access in Directive 2001/77/EC included not only access to the market but also the concept of grid connection.
The concepts of priority measures were adjusted in the RES Directive in 2009. Priority Access in Directive 2009/28/EC means that access to electricity markets is ensured under the premise that the RES is connected to the grid. Furthermore, it involves technical constraints of the system and the Priority Dispatch of RES based on the Merit Order from the Internal Market in Electricity Directive in 2003 （Directive 2003/54/EC）. On the other hand, Priority Connection in Directive 2009/ 28/EC indicates a “physical connection” to the grid based on the premise that the RES is not connected to the grid.
The conclusion of this discussion is that the clarification of the concepts of priority measures would help to establish an environment in which the use of RES can be maximized. It is helpful to take the technical constraints and economic precedence into consideration when making policies for the expansion of RES and forming the single energy market.
Moreover, the development of priority measures is important to realize the four objectives in the energy sector mentioned in Article 194 of the Lisbon Treaty and achieving a low-carbon society.