2014 Volume 60 Issue 2 Pages 154-158
Background:To identify the cause of cerebral embolism, we performed transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in patients suspected of embolic brain infarction including transient ischemic attack (TIA). We analyzed TEE findings and investigated factors associated with left atrial thrombus (LAT) detected by TEE.
Methods:We enrolled 98 consecutive patients who underwent TEE and had acute brain infarction or TIA that was possibly due to embolism. We assessed age, sex, presence of atrial fibrillation (AF), days from admission to TEE and TEE findings, including the prevalence of LAT, spontaneous echo contrast (SEC), left atrial appendage (LAA) slow flow velocity, patent foramen ovale (PFO), atrial septal aneurysm and aortic plaque (ASA).
Results:LAT was detected with TEE in 20 patients (20%). The factors that were significantly associated with the presence of LAT were male sex (unadjusted odds ratio (OR), 3.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-14.58; p=0.037), presence of AF (unadjusted OR, 9.58; 95% CI, 2.58-35.50; p< 0.001), SEC (unadjusted OR, 8.48; 95% CI, 2.57-28.00; p< 0.001) and LAA slow flow velocity (unadjusted OR, 5.18; 95% CI, 1.59-16.91; p=0.005). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that male sex (adjusted OR, 5.30; 95% CI, 1.09-25.71; p=0.039), presence of AF (adjusted OR, 8.97; 95% CI, 1.10-73.20; p=0.041) and SEC (adjusted OR, 10.87; 95% CI, 1.001-118.0; p=0.049) were independently associated with LAT, but LAA slow flow velocity was not.
Conclusion:SEC is an important risk factor associated with LAT in patients suspected of embolic brain infarction that is independent of AF.