2002 年 77 巻 5 号 p. 369-376
In the previous report, we demonstrated the origin of eukaryotic cell nuclei as the symbiosis of Archaea in Bacteria by the newly developed "Homology-Hit Analysis". In that case, we counted yeast Open Reading Frames (ORFs) showing the highest similarity to a bacterial ORF as orthologous ORFs (Orthologous ORFs were produced by speciation from a common ancestor, and have the highest similarity to each other.) by comparing whole ORFs of yeast with those of individual bacteria. However, we could not count all yeast ORFs showing the highest similarity to a bacterial ORF in functional categories of yeast. Therefore, the origin of ORFs in the functional categories of yeast could not be inferred strictly. Here, we have improved the method for detecting orthologous ORFs. In this method, we count the numbers of ORF with the highest similarity between individual yeast functional categories and individual bacteria as orthologous ORFs. By this method, it was possible to detect the correct orthologous ORFs and to infer the origins of the functional categories in eukaryotic cells.
As a result, two categories, assembly of protein complexes and DNA repair were newly judged to be of Archaeal origin, while five categories, lipid (fatty-acid and isoprenoid) metabolism, protein folding and stabilization, signal transduction, organization of the plasma membrane and organization of the cytoplasm, were newly judged to be of Bacterial origin. On the other hand, the origins of two categories (meiosis and cellular import, which were determined in the previous analysis) could not be judged. It is considered that functional categories related to the nucleus have origins common to Archaea, while those related to the cytoplasm have origins common to Bacteria. From these data including the origin of plasma membrane, it was further clarified that cell nucleus originated by the symbiosis of Archaea in Bacteria.