Genes & Genetic Systems
Online ISSN : 1880-5779
Print ISSN : 1341-7568
ISSN-L : 1341-7568
最新号
選択された号の論文の9件中1~9を表示しています
GGS
Review
  • Masato Nikaido
    原稿種別: Review
    2019 年 94 巻 4 号 p. 141-149
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/10/30
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/09/02
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    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) plays a key role in sensing pheromonal cues, which elicit innate responses and induce social and sexual behaviors. The vomeronasal receptor 1 genes, V1Rs, encode members of a pheromone receptor family that are mainly expressed in the VNO. Previous studies have revealed that the V1R family shows extraordinary variety among mammalian species owing to successive gene gains and losses. Because species-specific pheromonal interaction may facilitate species-specific reproductive behaviors, understanding the evolution of V1Rs in terms of their origin, repertoire and phylogeny should provide insight into the mechanisms of animal diversification. Here I summarize recent studies about the V1R family from its initial discovery in the rat genome to extensive comparative analyses among vertebrates. I further introduce our recent findings for V1Rs in a broad range of vertebrates, which reveal unexpected diversity as well as shared features common among lineages.

Full papers
  • Ningyu Sun, Yang Zhong, Takahiro Yonezawa
    原稿種別: Full paper
    2019 年 94 巻 4 号 p. 151-158
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/10/30
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/09/06
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    Arabidopsis thaliana, one of the most important model plants, has played an essential role in every biological field including evolutionary biology. Recent population genomic studies have gradually clarified the origin and evolution of this species. Nevertheless, incongruent patterns among gene trees based on cytogenetic data have highlighted the importance of understanding the life history evolution and landscape biogeography of extant A. thaliana populations. Here, we focus on the maternally inherited chloroplast genome in A. thaliana and carry out phylogeographic analyses and coalescent time estimations. The maternal lineage of A. thaliana originated in the European to West and Central Asian regions in the Early Pleistocene. Relicts, the ancient lineages suggested by population genomic data, are not ancestral maternal lineages, but are derived from the European population. Part of the European population then dispersed eastward and spread to the Indian region, and finally extended to the Yangtze River region. The branching patterns and evolutionary time scales of the maternal genealogy are significantly different from those estimated from analyses of autosomal genes, and these cannot be explained by incomplete lineage sorting of the ancestral polymorphisms during the coalescent process due to large differences in the evolutionary time scale involved.

  • Masahiro Furuyama, Haruna Nagaoka, Tadashi Sato, Mitsuru Sakaizumi
    原稿種別: Full paper
    2019 年 94 巻 4 号 p. 159-165
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/10/30
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/08/10
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    Gene-centromere (G-C) mapping provides insight into vertebrate genome composition, structure and evolution. Although medaka fish are important experimental animals, no genome-wide G-C map of medaka has been constructed. In this study, we used 112 interspecific triploid hybrids and 152 DNA markers to make G-C maps of all 24 linkage groups (LGs). Under the assumption of 50% interference, 24 centromeres were localized onto all corresponding medaka LGs. Comparison with 21 centromere positions deduced from putative centromeric repeats revealed that 19 were localized inside the centromeric regions of the G-C maps, whereas two were not. Based on the centromere positions indicated in the G-C maps and those of centromeric repeats on each LG, we classified chromosomes as either biarmed or monoarmed; n = 24 = 10 metacentrics/submetacentrics + 14 subtelocentrics/acrocentrics, which is consistent with the results of previous karyological reports. This study helps to elucidate genome evolution mechanisms, and integrates physical and genetic maps with karyological information of medaka.

  • Masaaki Osaka, Moe Nabemoto, Shunsuke Maeda, Satomi Sakazono, Hiromi M ...
    原稿種別: Full paper
    2019 年 94 巻 4 号 p. 167-176
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/10/30
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/08/31
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    Self-incompatibility (SI) is a sophisticated system for pollen selectivity to prevent pollination by genetically identical pollen. In Brassica, it is genetically controlled by a single, highly polymorphic S-locus, and the male and female S-determinant factors have been identified as S-locus protein 11 (SP11)/S-locus cysteine-rich protein (SCR) and S-locus receptor kinase (SRK), respectively. However, the overall molecular system and identity of factors in the downstream cascade of the SI reaction remain unclear. Previously, we identified a self-compatible B. rapa mutant line, TSC28, which has a disruption in an unidentified novel factor of the SI signaling cascade. Here, in a genetic analysis of TSC28, using an F2 population from a cross with the reference B. rapa SI line Chiifu-401, the causal gene was mapped to a genetic region of DNA containing markers BrSA64 and ACMP297 in B. rapa chromosome A1. By fine mapping using an F2 population of 1,034 plants, it was narrowed down to a genetic region between DNA markers ACMP297 and BrgMS4028, with physical length approximately 1.01 Mbp. In this genomic region, 113 genes are known to be located and, among these, we identified 55 genes that were expressed in the papilla cells. These are candidates for the gene responsible for the disruption of SI in TSC28. This list of candidate genes will contribute to the discovery of a novel downstream factor in the SP11–SRK signaling cascade in the Brassica SI system.

Short communication
  • Atsuo Iida, Zi Wang, Atsuko Sehara-Fujisawa
    原稿種別: Short communication
    2019 年 94 巻 4 号 p. 177-179
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/10/30
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/10/01
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    Integrins, transmembrane molecules that facilitate cell-to-cell and cell-to-extracellular matrix interactions, are heterodimers that consist of an α- and β-subunit. The integrin α4 gene (itgα4) is expressed in various type of cells and tissues. Its biochemical functions and physiological roles have been revealed using cultured cell assays. In contrast, the primary effect caused by itgα4 deletion on vertebrate development is poorly understood, because knockout mice exhibit multiple defects that can lead to embryonic lethality in the uterus. Zebrafish are a convenient vertebrate model to investigate morphogenesis during embryogenesis, because of their external fertilization and subsequent development outside the female’s body. Here, we generated a zebrafish mutant line named itgα4 ko108 using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system; the mutant genome harbored an approximately 2.0-kb deletion in the itgα4 locus. A truncated transcript was detected in itgα4 (+/−) or (−/−) fish but not in (+/+) fish. The mutant transcript was hypothesized to encode a truncated Itgα4 protein due to a premature stop codon. itgα4 (−/−) embryos obtained from the mating of heterozygous parents exhibited no apparent phenotype during development at 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf). However, approximately half of them exhibited cephalic hemorrhage at 48 hpf. The incidence ratio was significantly higher than that in (+/+) or (+/−) embryos. Embryonic hemorrhage has also been reported previously in Itgα4 knockout mice. In contrast, embryonic lethality with the other defects reported in the knockout mice was not observed in our zebrafish model. Therefore, the mutant line itgα4 ko108 should be a useful model to investigate a physiological function for Itgα4 in the blood circulation system.

Erratum
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