1953 年 26 巻 3 号 p. 91-101
The study of the settlements of powerful families in the middle age has been hitherto neglected, yet I think that it is of great historical and geographical significance.
The Settlements of powerful families called “Doijyo” were erected about the 14th or 15th Century. They are classified into three patterns. 1. a single enclosure style. 2. a, single moat and plural enclosures style. 3. double Moats and plural enclosures style. The settlements belonging to the second style were of the intermediate one between the first and the third. The settlements of the first style were the small-scale residences established below mountain castles and were chiefly distributed at the foot of the mountains. The settlements of the third style were mostly found in the plain. Each of the settlements of powerful families inn the Middle Age was the organic center of their own territory and an agglomerated settlement was formed around it, absorbing and drawing non-farming settlements ; but it remarkably contained the elements of dispersed settlements because of the feature of land system.
In the 16th century, the function of the settlements of powerful families underwent remarkable changes. In war tune, local powerful families were organizedd into the retainer groups of a feudal lord. The part that each of the settlements of powerful families had, performed as the center of the district was completely denied and made rapid changes. The great fortress was released and the vast area was changed to cultivated land., the residence being left alone at the corner of it. The feudalistic power of the powerful families, however, is symbolized by the landscape of the peculiar residence surrounded by clay walls. Having lost the function as the center of the district, each of the settlements of powerful families in those days became only a large-sized residence in its character. It was this residence that was called “Doi”.
In the 17th century Japanese castle cities were established. Since local powerful families were forced to move the new cities from their villages, their traditional residences in them completely decayed. The Japanese castle cities of the late Feudal Age were founded on those powerful families having been forced to move in there from their own local territory.