2006 年 55 巻 1 号 p. 317-314,1213
This paper traces the occurrences of the word samnyasa and the changes in its meaning from the Mundaka-upanisad (MundU) through the “Moksadharma” chapter (Moksdh) of the Mahabharata, to clarify finally how the word is given new meanings in the Bhagavadgita (BhG).
The MundU heralds a Brahman world achieved through renouncing (samnyasa) rather than performing karman (ritual activity). In the Moksdh samnyasa is taken one step further with the idea of liberation through nivrtti. And the idea of samnyasa, influenced by the successive theory of asrama, led to a desire for the life-style of the bhiksu. Thus the analysis of shifts in the use of samnyasa reveals a development into the ascetic that renounces all karman. Later, the BhG reinterprets the conventional idea of samnyasa negatively in order to evolve the idea of karma-yoga, which affirms karman by shifting the object of samnyasa from karman to the desire for karmaphala. Moreover, BhG develops idea of bhakti through samnyasa.