1998 Volume 45 Issue 4 Pages 385-391
The effect of waxy-barley flour substitution on the physical properties of wheat dough and bread was studied. The substitution of more than 20% waxy-barley flour in the presence of 0.3% calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate (CSL) decreased the loaf volume significantly, compared with the control, but no distinct differences between the loaf volume made with waxy and nonwaxy (draft) barley flours were observed. In farinograph mixing, 20% substitution of waxy-barley flour in wheat dough did not change the arrival time of the dough, but the substitution of the waxy-barley flour with lipase or CSL, or both, decreased the development and stability times from those of the control, whereas the water absorption ratio was significantly greater than in the control. Similarly, the compression stresses, modulus of elasticity, and viscosity coefficient of 20% substitution of waxy-barley flour in dough with lipase, CSL, or both were significantly lower than those of the control. The substitution of waxy-barley flour in dough tended to slightly increase the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy over that of the control. Under the scanning electron microscope, the substitution of waxy-barley flour in dough was somewhat smooth in appearance, and the starch granules were completely covered with gluten. The firmness of bread crumbs during storage was significantly increased only at 30% substitution of waxy-barley flour in wheat flour.