2021 Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 215-220
Kynurenic acid, a tryptophan metabolite, acts as antagonist or agonist of several receptors. Hypobromous acid (HOBr) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) are generated by eosinophils and neutrophils. At inflammation sites, kynurenic acid may encounter HOBr and HOCl to generate products. When kynurenic acid was incubated with HOBr under neutral conditions, kynurenic acid generated a single product almost exclusively. This was identified as 3-bromokynurenic acid. Kynurenic acid reacted with HOCl, generating two products. The major product was identified as 3-chlorokynurenic acid with its oxidative decarboxylation product, 3-chloro-4-hydroxy-2(1H)-quinolinone as a by-product. Free amino acids suppressed the reactions of kynurenic acid with HOBr and HOCl. Taurine suppressed the HOCl reaction but not the HOBr reaction. An eosinophil peroxidase system containing H2O2, NaCl, and NaBr reacted with kynurenic acid, generating 3-bromokynurenic acid under mildly acidic conditions. Although a myeloperoxidase system containing H2O2 and NaCl reacted with kynurenic acid to generate 3-chlorokynurenic acid under mildly acidic conditions, the product was altered to 3-bromokynurenic acid by addition of NaBr to the system. These results suggest that 3-bromokynurenic acid and 3-chlorokynurenic acid may be generated from kynurenic acid at inflammation sites in humans, although their formation will be suppressed by coexistent amino acids.