This paper describes a framework of critical thinking research approaches in cognitive sciences. First, we define the concept of critical thinking based on previous research findings. Second, we describe the history of the idea of critical thinking in philosophy,psychology, and education. Third, we discuss the processes and components of critical thinking based on cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence following which, we describe teaching and evaluating critical thinking. Lastly, we introduce a framework of critical thinking (comprising the componential, acquisition, and contextual models) in cognitive sciences and discuss future research.