2020 Volume 66 Issue 1 Pages 8-22
To understand the process of the resource shift from natural forest to planted forest by timber industries, an analysis was carried out on the major production areas of logs and timber products (sawn timber, plywood, chip and pulp) in Indonesia, estimating how the relationship among them changed. Until the 1990s, log production in Kalimantan and Sumatra was conducted mainly in natural forest concessions, to produce plywood and sawn timber. Since the 2000s, the pulp and chip industries have become the largest log consumers in Indonesia. Their main source is planted forests in Sumatra, but they also obtain raw material from planted forests in other regions, especially Kalimantan, and from tree-farming by small holders in Sumatra. Major plywood and sawn timber production has moved from Sumatra and Kalimantan to Java, and logs from tree-farming in Java have become the largest source, while logs from natural forest concessions in Kalimantan are also used as raw material. Plywood industries in Kalimantan source logs from surviving natural forest concessions, while logs from planted forest concessions in the region are also estimated to be used for raw material.