1958 年 9 巻 6 号 p. 445-460,482
i) In terms of geography, the rural house, especially its roof, is an important key to approach a settlement structure. The roof of a rural house differs from one area to another, as it reflects conditions as well as the specific way of living of the people of an area. It is possible to grasp the typical regional character in the type of roof and arrangement of rooms; also, the dynamic change of life in a rural area, such as pervasion of the use of roof-tiles and the rise and fall of silkworm culture, can be made clear through the roof-type and its change.
The present writer chooses the whole Western Japan an object, examines the distribution of several roof-types, and courses of their circulation, and tries to make clear settlement structures as seen through the roofs.
ii) Roofing material:
More isolated mountain or island villages use more thatched or shingle roofs. Tiled roofs are widely used in industrialized areas; they show the tendency to spread from suburban areas into mountain areas with the development of urbanization and traffic. This tendency will grow stronger in future.
Different roof-tiles are used between each area, reflecting local conditions: the tile-guard and the Iwami red tile in the snowy area of the northern parts (although not so wide spread as in the Tohoku and Hokuriku Districts); windbreaks in the seacoast area (especially in the Pacific Coast). Chinese red tiles in Okinawa are interesting as showing foreign influences.
To a large extent, roofing material is conditioned by economic backgrounds.
Many types can be recognized: the U. and L. roofs, the conical roof and other varieties beside three fundamental types-the “irimoya” (gabled) roof, the “yosemune” (hipped) roof, the “kirizuma” (barge) roof.
The “irimoya” roof is spread over the Kinki District north of the median dislocation line, eastern Chugoku, north-western Shikoku.
The “yosemune” roof is widely adopted in the Kii Peninsular, western Chugoku, the Shikoku District, and the Kyushu District. It is especially much used along the Pacific Coast.
The “kirizuma” roof is popular in the mountain areas of Tajima, Hyogo Pref., and the Yamato Basin. In Tajima, silkworm culture accounts for its popularity. In Yamato, the “kirizuma” style has developed into the so-called “yamatomune” roof.
The U. type roof, a variety usually called “kudozukuri”, is centered at the Tsukushi Plain in the North Kyushu District. It is called “U” because it has two projections in the rear.
The L. type roof, another variety with one projection in the rear of the house, is found in Kyushu (“kagiya”), in the Kochi Plain (“magariya”), and on the Tamba Plateau (“tsunoya”). Old families often adopt this roof-type.
The “futamunezukuri” roof, where the main body of house and the kitchen are separated, is found in Kagoshima down to Nansei Islands. This roof-type is originated in the Micronesian and the Melanesian Islands.
The conical roof is found in Okinoerabu and Yoron, the islands situated at the southernmost tip of Japan.
iv) As shown here, roofs in Western Japan richly vary in type. They are further varied by the use of different ridge pressings (decorative). The distribution of these roof-types, remarkably correspond with distinctive areas. It further coincide with topographical districts.
The mixture of two or more types as well as the transformation of a type is seen where two distributional areas meet. Social changes have at places resulted in changes of roof-type. Adaptation to climatic conditions has also contributed to improving the roof. At defiles and mountain passes, the course of circulation of each roof-type can be traced.