Systematization and classification of exercise elements in Artistic Gymnastics (Systematik der Turnübungen im Kunstturnen) is valuable for training practice and evaluation of competition exercises.
The purpose of this study related to Artistic Gymnastics was to analyze the systematic positioning of new exercise elements (Kehr with 1/1 turn around one arm, Wende backward with 1/1 turn around one arm, Wende forward with 1/1 turn around one arm) in the Kehr and Wendeswing Element Group for the Pommel Horse.
To achieve this purpose, the following three areas were considered:
1. An explanation of genetic or phenomenological-morphological methodology (Kaneko, 2009) in the field of Sport Movement and Behavior: Kaneko's theory can be classified roughly into analysis of movement structure and analysis of movement learning. The theory of movement structure contains three disciplines. In this study, “archaeological analysis” (Kaneko, 2007) and systematic analysis of the above new exercise elements were done.
2. Archaeological analysis of new exercise elements in Artistic Gymnastics: The method of Archaeological analysis is based upon Foucault's Archaeology (Foucault, 1969). The purpose of archaeological analysis is to show the “structure”, in this case meaning a cognitive framework, i.e., the form of unconscious framework used for individual perception and thought. In this study, the historical and socio-cultural premises of the creation of new exercise elements in Artistic Gymnastics were clarified.
3. Systematic analysis of the above three new exercise elements on the Pommel Horse and a proposal for an exact description of these elements: Systematic analysis showed a relationship between the three new elements and other older elements. Furthermore, precise definitions and names for these new elements were proposed.
The present findings will provide a basis for objective evaluation of Pommel Horse competition exercises by judges and a guideline for training of male gymnasts. As a result of this study, the positioning of older elements within the systematic framework was modified, and the basis for positioning of elements created after the 1970's was constructed.