体育学研究
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
最新号
選択された号の論文の67件中1~50を表示しています
総説
  • 夏原 隆之 , 中山 雅雄 , 川北 準人, 荒木 香織 , 市村 操一
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 379-396
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/05/26
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/04/02
    ジャーナル フリー
     The successful development of Transformational Leadership (TFL) theory has influenced research in organizational psychology since the 1980s. Research shows that TFL has been effective not only in the domain of business but also in the military, education, parenting, and public sectors. Sport psychology researchers became interested in TFL in the early 2000s. The TFL behaviors in sport include individualized consideration, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, fostering teamwork, high performance expectation, and appropriate role modeling. The focus of the current review paper is to examine and organize research on TFL in the sport coaching literature. More specifically, the effects of coaches’ TFL behavior on the psychological and behavioral aspects of athletes are reviewed. The previous literature was organized into 7 themes: performance, training attitude, motivation, self-efficacy, cohesion, satisfaction, and psychological development. It is recommended that future research should examine the effect of TFL on desired psychological and behavioral outcomes of athletes and include it in sport coaching education.
  • 社会運動研究とクラブマネジャー実践から
    水上 博司
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 995-1016
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/11/26
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/11/03
    ジャーナル フリー
     By using Michel Foucault's approach to discourse analysis, this study aimed to clarify the difference between the discourse regarding political participation by non-profit community sports clubs in the context of social movement studies and the discourse on “lobbying the government” in club management practices, within the context of political participation. This also included an appraisal of whether social movement studies are effective for researching the activities of non-profit community sports clubs. For the discourse analysis, I made estimates that were analogous to the characteristics of the “lobbying the government” discourse (i.e. by what and how it is influenced) with reference to the practice of club management by identifying thoughts and perceptions supporting the discourse. Based on the results obtained, I proposed a new research perspective for social movement studies that would contribute to the practice of club management.
     I identified 3 characteristics in the “lobbying the government” discourse: First, the content of the “support” provided by the government to community sports clubs was characterizing the discourse. This created a discourse constraint that prevented the community sports clubs from being portrayed as social movement organizations. Second, the alleged equal “partnership” between the government and the community sports clubs was constraining the discourse. Because of this, the discourse was bound to focus on the club's equal relationship with the government, even when the club was simply a convenient means of outsourcing for the government. Third, regarding the relationship with the government, club management practices should be free from the discourse constraints with key terms such as “support” and “partnership”. Therefore, on this basis I would propose the need for a language strategy in order to explore the potential of community sports clubs participating in politics, and not just remaining as NPOs that act as intermediate support organizations to supplement government activities portrayed in social movement studies.
     Based on these results, it was proposed that the future practice of club managers requires a discourse that explores the possibility of political participation by targeting the significance of intermediate support organizations as social movements, similarly to the concept of “lobbying the government”.
原著論文
  • 矮小化からの解放と議論の前提の再構築
    髙橋 徹
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 9-23
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/01/27
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/11/24
    ジャーナル フリー
     The present study was performed to clarify the following 2 issues to reconstruct a premise that would facilitate a meaningful debate on John Dewey's views in the field of physical education. First, certain misconceptions surrounding Dewey's views, which were regarded as experientialist, were examined in an attempt to understand his claims and position more accurately. Second, it was investigated how the field of physical education in Japan came to accept Dewey's educational approach and how it impacted the field.
     Initially, an overview of Dewey's conception of pragmatism was conducted, and then misconceptions about Dewey's approach and their origin were discussed. Then, the impact of Dewey's educational theory on the field of physical education in post-war Japan was examined, focusing in particular on the relationship between Dewey's thought and Maekawa Mineo's “theory of physical education in life”.
     Contrary to popular belief, Dewey's educational approach did not prioritize a form of radical experientialism. Rather, it focused on shaping a child' s development by reconstructing experience. Dewey argued that different methods should be used to provide experiences that are meaningful for a child's growth. In other words, his approach aimed to actively deconstruct and reconstruct the framework of modern education. In this sense, one must understand Dewey's aim in order to properly understand his broader educational theory.
     Dewey's educational theory was influential in Japan's post-war educational reform. In the field of physical education, in particular, his theory was foundational to Maekawa's theory. However, his theory has been misinterpreted when applied in schools, and the experiential learning that was implemented has been criticized for hindering physical abilities. Likewise, the field of physical education has been critical of Dewey's educational theory because of its experiential nature. Regardless of the merits and demerits of Dewey's theory, the physical education literature must first properly interpret it if research on its implementation in the field is to develop further.
  • 軸脚による身体重心速度と踏込脚による地面反力に着目して
    苅山 靖, 豊田 彩乃, 藤井 宏明
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 25-34
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/02/02
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/11/27
    ジャーナル フリー
     The velocity of the center of gravity of the pivot leg and the ground reaction force of the stride leg during windmill pitching are critical for ball speed. The aim of this study was to investigate jump ability in relation to the velocity of the center of gravity of the pivot leg and the ground reaction force of the stride leg. Seven female softball pitchers performed windmill pitching and various jump tests: countermovement jump, standing long jump (SLJ), rebound jump (RJ), and one-step approach single-leg vertical jump (AVJ). The results obtained were as follows.
     1) No significant relationship between the ball speed during windmill pitching and jump ability was observed in any of the jump tests.
     2) The velocity of the center of gravity of the pivot leg was significantly correlated with SLJ and RJ ability.
     3) The vertical and horizontal negative impulses (ground reaction force) during windmill pitching were significantly correlated with those in the AVJ.
     These results demonstrated that the velocity of the center of gravity of the pivot leg and the ground reaction force of the stride leg—which, as demonstrated in previous studies, are crucial in determining the ball speed during windmill pitching—were correlated with jump ability. Moreover, the relationship between jump ability and the velocity of the center of gravity of the pivot leg and that between jump ability and the ground reaction force of the stride leg differed.
  • 柴田 篤志, 榎本 靖士
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 35-48
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/02/05
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/12/07
    ジャーナル フリー
     The purpose of this study was to clarify the kinetic characteristics of the take-off leg during the take-off phase required to effectively change the direction of the center of the mass velocity vector in the running single-leg jump (RSLJ) by comparing the kinetics of jumpers and sprinters. Nine male collegiate jumpers and 9 male collegiate sprinters performed the RSLJ in 2 tasks designed to achieve as much forward and upward motion as possible, respectively, with 4 different run-up speeds. Three-dimensional coordinates of the end positions of the body segments and the ground reaction force were obtained using a motion capture and force platform system. Leg stiffness and the change in direction of the velocity of the center of mass during the second half of the takeoff phase were greater for the jumpers than for the sprinters at the same run-up speed. However, there was no significant difference in the decrease of velocity between the 2 groups. As a result, the jumpers achieved a greater jump height and jump distance. They also exhibited greater knee joint torque in the first half and greater ankle plantar torque in the second half than the sprinters. This ankle plantar flexion torque might prevent excessive forward rotation of the shank segment during the take-off phase. These results suggest that differences in the take-off leg kinetics of jumpers may work to change the direction of the center of mass velocity more effectively.
  • 舩先 康平, 白井 克佳, 岡田 幸彦
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 49-65
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/02/05
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/11/24
    ジャーナル フリー
     The purpose of the present study was to explore how a national sport organization (NSO) can improve the domestic elite sport system.
     The authors developed a framework for analyzing the relationships between the organizational capacity of the NSO and the elite sport system. This framework reflected relationships among the following concepts derived from a literature review: (a) National financial support influences the organizational capacity of the NSO. (b) The organizational capacity of the NSO influences the elite sport system. (c) The organizational capacity of the NSO influences the elite sport system through other sport development stakeholders. An exploratory case study of the NSO was conducted to determine the best practice for improving Japanese international sport competitiveness.
     Findings concerning relationships among these concepts in the analytical framework were highlighted, focusing particularly on knowledge of the organizational capacity contained in human resources. The findings suggested a chain structure in which the regional coach understood the practical coaching knowledge of the national coach and then shared it with other regional coaches.
  • 体操伝習所における体操とその音楽伴奏について
    曽我 芳枝
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 67-78
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/02/05
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/11/24
    ジャーナル フリー
     The present study, based on a literature review, was conducted to clarify the role of music in the development of modern physical education in Japan by focusing on the relationship between physical education and musical accompaniment, as exemplified by light gymnastics at the Taiso Denshu Jo (National School of Gymnastics), which were introduced with the aim of establishing modern school physical education.
     The results obtained were as follows.
     1. G.A. Leland and gymnastics instructors believed that performing gymnastics with musical accompaniment would be very effective, based on the gymnastics books “Shinsentaisousyo” and “Shinseitaisouhou”.
     2. It appears that Clara Matsuno was actually hired as a part-time employee specializing in gymnastics accompaniment until the Taiso Denshu Jo became attached to the Tokyo Normal School.
     3. From the records of the “Ongaku Torishirabe Gakari Jidai Bunshotsuzuri” (Documentary Files on the Research and Musical Educational Institution) held by Tokyo University of the Arts, it seems that Watson's gymnastics book was used at the Taiso Denshu Jo.
     4. From the above records, it became clear that G.A. Leland recommended that Japanese samurai descendants should sing exercises songs from an early age in order to strengthen their bodies because of their weak lungs.
     5. The above records revealed that tuning repair and rental of gymnastics pianos were often carried out. This suggests that a lot of gymnastics practice was performed with piano accompaniment at the Taiso Denshu Jo.
  • 図子 浩太佑 , 苅山 靖, 吉田 拓矢, 図子 あまね , 大山 卞 圭悟, 尾縣 貢
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 91-102
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/02/18
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/12/07
    ジャーナル フリー
     This study aimed to investigate differences in the isometric rate of force development (IRFD) for the early, late, and whole phases of the force-time curve during explosive leg extension among ball sports athletes and track and field athletes. Ninety-one athletes specializing in different ball sports (ball sports athletes group), 43 sprinters and jumpers (sprinters & jumpers group), 10 throwers (thrower group) and 14 endurance runners (endurance runners group) performed the isometric unilateral leg press with explosive force production. A custombuilt dynamometer was used to measure IRFDs during the isometric unilateral leg press with a knee angle of 115 deg. IRFDs for early phase (Early IRFD), late phase (Late IRFD) and overall force-time curve (Average IRFD) were obtained. relative IRFD that took individual body weight (IRFD/BW) were also derived. Differences in IRFDs among the various sport groups were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and multiple comparison. It was found that IRFDs other than Late IRFD/BW showed a significant main effect among the athlete groups (p < 0.05). The results suggested that the characteristics of IRFDs other than Late IRFD/BW might differ among athletes according to their specialization. For multiple comparison, the ball sports athletes group and the sprinters & jumpers group tended to show similar mean IRFD values. However, only mean values for the Early IRFD/BW of sprinters & jumpers group were significantly greater than those for the ball sports athletes group (p < 0.05). In the throwers group, the mean of any IRFD tended to be greater, and the mean values of Early IRFD, Late IRFD, and Average IRFD were significantly greater than in the other groups (p < 0.05). In contrast, the endurance runners group tended to show small mean values for any IRFDs. These present results suggest that the capacity for explosive force production is reflected in the differences of IRFDs other than the Late IRFD/BW among various sports.
  • 日置 佑輔, 古橋 侑季 , 林 陵平
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 125-141
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/03/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/12/24
    ジャーナル フリー
     This study aimed to investigate the developmental characteristics of the double- and single-leg countermovement jump (CMJ) and rebound jump (RJ) in elementary and junior high school students. A total of 823 students (401 boys and 422 girls) aged 7 to 15 years performed the CMJ, RJ, single-leg CMJ (SCMJ), and single-leg RJ (SRJ). To evaluate jumping ability, we measured the jumping height and RJ-index for the CMJ and SCMJ and for the RJ and SRJ, respectively. The main results obtained were as follows:
     1) In boys, both the CMJ and SCMJ jumping heights and the RJ and SRJ indices were shown to develop with age.
     2) In girls, the developmental characteristics of both CMJ and RJ ability differed between single-leg and doubleleg.
     3) In both sexes, the ground contact time in the SRJ increased significantly after age 9—10 years (p < 0.01).
     4) Regarding the CMJ jump height, a significant correlation was found between the CMJ and SCMJ in both sexes (p < 0.01). For the RJ-index, a significant correlation was found between the RJ and the SRJ in both sexes (p < 0.01).
     5) The number of boys and girls with a SRJ type may increase after junior high school, and the number of girls with a RJ type may decrease after junior high school.
     Our findings indicate that the developmental process of double- and single-leg jumping in elementary and junior high school students is similar in boys but different in girls. Comparison between double- and single-leg jumping ability showed that the CMJ had a high coefficient of determination, while the RJ had a lower value. Additionally, the number of boys and girls with a SRJ type may increase after junior high school. Therefore, especially when evaluating performance of the RJ, it is necessary to measure the performance of the double-leg and that of the single-leg.
  • 藤野 和樹 , 木内 敦詞, 八田 直紀, 升 佑二郎 , 林 直樹
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 143-156
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/03/08
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/01/12
    ジャーナル フリー
     This study of university students examined the effects of a rubric based on subjective skill tasks on the subjective benefits of participation in physical education courses. Three studies were conducted based on the ADDIE course improvement model. We examined 595 subjects taking a badminton course (177 from preimprovement courses and 418 from improved courses) at universities C and D in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. Study 1 examined the impact of badminton skill level in pre-improvement classes on the subjective benefits. The results indicated that students with higher skill levels had higher learning outcomes than those with lower skill levels. Study 2 utilized free descriptions by students to identify the subjective skill tasks they found difficult based on their skill level. This clarified that the perception of tasks differed according to skill level. For example, members of the beginner group assessed their skills not by their own movement but by the flight of the shuttle, and a rubric was created based on this evaluation. In Study 3, the subjective benefit scores were compared between the pre-improvement classes and the improved classes using the rubric. This revealed that the improved classes using the rubric had higher scores than the pre-improvement classes in terms of “Improvements in physical strength and physical activities” and “Establishment of regular lifestyles.” The results indicated that the improved class using the rubric based on subjective skill tasks enhanced the subjective benefits perceived by the students.
  • 彼の身体形成へのまなざしの変化に着目して
    広瀬 健一
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 183-197
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/04/09
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/01/18
    ジャーナル フリー
     This paper focuses on François Rabelais (1494?-1553), who was active during the Renaissance period, which marked a turning point in history and attitudes towards physical education. We tried to extract his ideas on physical education from the contents of his work “Gargantua and Pantagruel”. In this paper, as a “viewpoint” for extracting Rabelais's “physical education ideas”, we focused on the relationship between the terms “education” and “body”, which forms the actual element of “physical education”.
     First, we confirmed how Rabelais positions the body, which is the focus in physical education. As a result, the “Second Book”, which is the first part of “Gargantua and Pantagruel”, revealed that he might not have had a positive view of education for the body. An examination of the “First Book”, which was published 2 years after the “Second Book”, revealed that Rabelais treated knowledge education and physical exercise equally, and changes in his physical view were recognized. In the “First Book”, he argued that education of the mind and body at the same time was incompatible. The “First Book” expresses a deeper and clearer description of Rabelais's concept of physical education. Regarding the body as an object to be educated, the contents of play and chivalry education are adopted as the items of physical exercise, and the constituent elements of physical education are confirmed in this scenario.
     Rabelais's ideal educational theory is a method of appealing to human autonomy, and the ideal society appears in the story of “Abbey of Thélème”. Here, it is possible to identify the constituent elements of physical education as “self-education” as a target for autonomous humans to discipline their bodies.
  • 白木 駿佑, 尾縣 貢 , 山元 康平, 木越 清信
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 199-211
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/04/12
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/02/08
    ジャーナル フリー
     The present study aimed to examine the profile of energy metabolism during repetition sprint exercises with different rest durations. Nine competitive male track and field athletes performed a submaximal-intensity increment exercise and 4 kinds of 2 consecutive 30-s sprints tests with rest durations of 4, 10, 15, and 20 min, respectively. The mean power output during these sprints was evaluated as the average value over the entire 30-s period. Aerobic and anaerobic energy during these sprints was determined from the extrapolated linear regression between power and the steady-state O2 uptake obtained during the submaximal-intensity increment exercise. During 2nd sprints compared with 1st sprints in the respective tests, the mean power output decreased significantly in the tests with rest durations of 4, 10, and 15 min; in all the tests, the aerobic energy increased significantly and the anaerobic energy decreased significantly. These results suggest that the 1st sprint in a repetition sprint exercise causes activation of aerobic metabolism and inhibition of anaerobic metabolism during the 2nd sprint. On the other hand, it is also suggested that recovery of anaerobic metabolism after the 1st sprint requires a longer rest duration than that for recovery of performance in the repetition sprint exercise.
  • 小嶋 季輝, 上赤 祐司, 小山 雄三, 木野村 嘉則
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 213-233
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/04/12
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/02/15
    ジャーナル フリー
     Teaching of the “Fosbury flop” in junior high school has high educational and developmental value for students. However, it is often the case that the teaching and learning methods in this class do not work well for some students because they are inconsistent with their tendency to interpret information. Therefore, learning material based on multi-interpretability has been created to overcome this difficulty for both teachers and students.
     Currently, as this learning material only has theoretically guaranteed effectiveness, it needs to be examined empirically. Moreover, any guaranteed theory also needs to be criticised empirically. In order to achieve this empirical examination, it is necessary to prove its effectiveness as a subjectivity study because of the nature of the theory behind the creation of the material. No consensus regarding a survey method for subjectivity research has yet been established. Therefore, the purposes of the present study were (1) to verify the effect of the learning material based on multi-interpretability of “Fosbury flop” lessons in junior high school, and (2) to create a reasonable proposal for the survey method using a subjectivity research approach.
     With regard to (1), use of a learning material based on multbri-interpretability can enable unlearned items to change shape according to already learned items after execution and can provide anchoring biases in learners before execution. Thus, application of multi-interpretability is effective, and the “Fosbury flop” is easier to learn when these learning materials are employed. With regard to (2), it has been demonstrated that the method above can be adapted to subjectivity research and the procedure can be established, yielding positive results.
  • 「性」はいかに扱われてきたのか?
    三上 純
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 255-271
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/05/03
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/02/22
    ジャーナル フリー
     The purpose of this study was to identify issues related to the treatment of sex/gender in studies on the effectiveness of athletic club activities, conducted by comparing individuals belonging and not belonging to athletic clubs, through a critical review of gender and sexuality perspective.
     The materials for this review, “studies on the effectiveness of athletic club activities”, were collected according to Imashuku et al. (2019). The present study was conducted with reference to previous work that had pointed out existing problems related to gender perspective. In addition, to clarify the perspective of this study, transition of the gender concept was summarized, along with a discussion of sexual diversity.
     The gender of the respondents in 149 articles was collected. Among them, 12 articles did not report the gender of the respondents (8.1%), 12 articles reported all-female samples (8.1%), 25 articles reported all-male samples (16.8%), 91 articles reported both female and male samples (61.1%), and 9 articles included “neither,” “blank,” or “no-answer” in addition to female and male samples in the analyses (6.0%).
     An asymmetric nature between the all-male samples and all-female samples was evident. Articles with all female samples stated the reasons for setting the participants, unlike those with all male participants. In articles that included both female and male participants in the analysis, it became clear that there were problems with analytical methods that ignored gender differences or assumed sex differences. In addition, there were problems with interpretation that left gender differences unaddressed or considered them in terms of sex-related traits. The present study also reviewed how sexual diversity can be masked due to research design, exclusion of “no-answer,” and non-consideration of minorities. Finally, using one article as the object to be considered, a concrete example of the significance of introducing a gender perspective was included.
     Through this review, it is argued that there is a need to re-examine “studies on the effectiveness of athletic club activities” from a gender perspective, and also for social construction of gender and sexual diversity in research design, analysis and discussion.
  • 多賀 健 , 浅井 武
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 273-296
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/05/03
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/02/15
    ジャーナル フリー
     The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of continuous dribbling training on the dribbling movement mode and game performance of junior youth soccer players. The subjects were 32 junior high school soccer players: 17 in the training group, and 15 in the control group. Both groups did 2 hours of training 3 times a week for 16 months. The training group performed dribbling training while the control group performed agility and pass & control training for the first 40 minutes. The dribbling tests, motion filming and 11 vs 11 games with the third group were carried out before each group's training, after 3 months, 6 months, 10 months, and 16 months. The results showed that time in the dribbling test was decreased to a greater degree in the training group than in the control group. With zigzag dribbling, time showed a greater decrease only in the training group as training progressed. For double scissors feinting, the time in double scissors showed a greater decrease in the training group than in the control group. This was because the standard deviation of body axis inclination decreased in a crosswise direction in the YZ plane in the training group. Furthermore, the center of gravity velocity at ball carrying showed a significant increase only in the training group as training progressed. This was because the knee joint angle of the supporting leg decreased at the moment of ball touch, and the knee joint angular velocity of the supporting leg increased upon lifting from the ground in the training group. With double touch feinting, the ball velocity and center of gravity velocity showed greater increase in the training group than in the control group. This was because the knee joint angle of the supporting leg decreased at the moment of ball touch, and the knee joint angular velocity of the supporting leg increased upon lifting from the ground in the training group. With regard to game performance, the success rate in dribbling was significantly improved only in the training group. The success rate in passing showed a decrease in both groups after 3 months, but was significantly increased only in the training group. Consequently, this study clarified that continuous dribbling training intended for junior high school soccer players decreased the time in the dribbling test and changed the dribbling movement mode, thus improving dribbling skill. It is suggested that this improvement will contribute to enhancement of game performance in terms of dribbling and passing.
  • 佐々木 万丈, 吉田 みな
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 329-342
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/05/19
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/04/09
    ジャーナル フリー
     This study was conducted to investigate the actual situation of eating disorders in female esthetic athletes and to examine the relationship between their eating behavior and their coping behavior when in stressful situations. The subjects were 131 female university athletes engaged in high-level cheerleading, song leading, creative dance, rhythmic gymnastics, and gymnastics (average age 19.8 ± 1.01 years). We asked them how they perceive expectations from others, whether or not they are willing to live up to such expectations, whether or not they think that their current body shape is suitable for competition, and the number of meals eaten per day. We also asked them to complete the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). The threshold value in the original EAT-26 is 20 points; however, it has been pointed out that a more suitable threshold for Japanese people is 15. Therefore, in our analysis, we set 15 points as the threshold value. The results suggested that 41.7% of our subjects were at high risk of eating disorders. A comparison by event revealed that rhythmic gymnastics athletes were at the highest risk. Furthermore, among athletes who considered their current body shape to be less than adequate for competing in their event, those who ate fewer than 3 meals per day showed a higher risk of suffering from eating disorders. Athletes who adopted coping behaviors while prioritizing emotional control in stressful situations were at higher risk of eating disorders. Finally, we assessed various means of preventing eating disorders in this cohort.
  • 高校野球における選手選考を事例にして
    深見 英一郎 , 岡田 悠佑 , 井上 一彦
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 343-360
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/05/19
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
     In this study, we conducted a survey of current high school baseball coaches regarding the method of player selection, which is important for both coaches and team members for successful team management. The subjects were 45 head coaches of high school baseball teams.
     The survey results revealed that the most common method of player selection was the head coach taking the initiative by listening to the thoughts and opinions of the team members, therein selecting players. Here, the head coach presents the selection criteria which all the team members should make an effort to advance and equally guarantee the opportunity to be selected as a player. An important selection criterion was high baseball skills and achievements among the players. Moreover, an attitude of the player for reliable and hard-working team practice was deemed necessary. It is considered that these selection criteria and procedures would ensure that all team members would have an opportunity to make independent efforts to create a successful baseball team. Among the targeted high school baseball teams, no team was found to select players by exchanging opinions with team members only. This is because it is very complicated and difficult to show fair and clear selection criteria and selection procedures to all of the team members, leading to difficulty in selecting players fairly in a diverse and large team. In addition, baseball is a game in which most of the technical and tactical play in the game is executed by signs from the head coach.
     Therefore, in comparison to other sports, it is considered more comfortable for both the head coach and the team members to select individual players under the guidance of the head coach. As a future research topic, it will be necessary to examine how team members feel about and evaluate the choice of players under the guidance of the head coach.
  • 藪中 佑樹 , 亀谷 涼, 山田 弥生子 , 土屋 裕睦
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 419-435
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/06/04
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/04/12
    ジャーナル フリー
     The aims of this research were to develop a scale that can assess generalization of the psychosocial skills used in competitive sports to other life domains for collegiate athletes, and to examine its characteristics and related factors.
     In a preliminary study, the generalization areas identified were study, career selection, relationships, and everyday life. Furthermore, 71 items representing 4 generalization areas were developed based on 10 dimensions of the required life skills for collegiate athletes (Shimamoto et al., 2013). The items were reviewed by 8 experts to confirm the content validity. Subsequently, factor analysis was conducted using the data collected from 262 participants (162 males and 100 females) to select a list of items. The initial 40 items were extracted and the content validity for all items was developed.
     In the main study, a total of 391 university student athletes (234 males and 154 females, and 3 not specified) were asked to respond to a questionnaire. The survey included questions about socio-demographic and psychosocial skills used in competitive sports (Ueno and Nakagomi., 1998), required life skills for athletes (Shimamoto et al., 2013), and questions about factors related to generalization (similarity of action and awareness of generalization possibilities). In addition, they responded to 40 items designed to assess generalization of the psychosocial skills used in competitive sports to other life domains derived from our preliminary studies. Confirmative factor analysis of the generalization of psychosocial skills items indicated a 10-factor structure with 30 items. Reliability was verified in terms of internal consistency. Convergent validity was confirmed by correlations with psychosocial skills used in competitive sports and required life skills for collegiate athletes. The scale derived from these results was named the “Generalization Scale of Psychosocial Skills for Collegiate Athletes” (GSPS-CA). In terms of demographic variables (gender, grade, and individual or team events), gender and grade differences were observed in some dimensions of the GSPS-CA, and individual or team event differences were not observed in any dimension. One-way ANOVA of each dimension of the GSPS-CA revealed interaction with factors related to generalization (similarity of action and awareness of generalization possibilities).
  • 日本人女子大学生を対象とした横断研究
    橋本 有子, 川上 諒子 , 丸藤 祐子 , 澤田 亨 , 松平 浩, 内藤 久士
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 437-444
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/06/09
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/04/27
    ジャーナル フリー
     A cross-sectional evaluation of the association between total physical activity and body awareness was performed. The subjects were 361 Japanese female university students. The IPAQ-SV was used to assess the amount of physical activity, and Fujino's Body Awareness Scale was used to assess Actual Body Feeling, Awareness of Bodily Feeling, Awareness when Standing and Walking, and Bodily Distress. Total Body Awareness was defined as the sum of the above 3 except for Bodily Distress. The data were adjusted for age and body fat, and the association between physical activity and Body Awareness was examined using analysis of covariance. The results revealed positive associations between physical activity and total Body Awareness (P for trend=0.001). In terms of intensity, there were positive associations between total Body Awareness, moderate-intensity physical activity (P for trend=0.041), and vigorous-intensity physical activity (P for trend=0.001). These results suggest that there is a positive association between physical activity and Body Awareness among Japanese female university students, especially for vigorous-intensity physical activity.
  • 浅野 佑樹 , 岡部 文武 , 藤田 善也, 土屋 純
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 445-462
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/06/11
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/04/27
    ジャーナル フリー
     The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of twisting motion during a round-off, and its changes resulting from connection to a stretched backward somersault in gymnastics floor exercise. Eight male gymnasts performed a round-off (i.e., round-off trial) and a round-off to a backward stretched somersault (i.e., round-off somersault trial). Each of the trials was videotaped with 4 cameras operating at 120 fps to obtain 3-dimensional coordinate data. The time for a round-off, the center of mass of the hands and feet, the velocity of the center of body mass, the rotation angle about the longitudinal axis of the body (i.e., twist angle of round-off), the torsion angle of the torso, the shoulder joint angle, and the hip joint angle were calculated. The results indicated that the twist angle of round-off increased continually, starting before hand contact with the floor and ending when the hands left the floor. The round-off twist was not only generated by hip abduction at the stepping leg, but also promoted by the upward swing motion of both legs through his back side. The round-off trial temporarily formed a deeply flexed lunging position to increase the velocity of the center of body mass in the frontal direction. Also, the backward upswing of the legs rotated the lower torso, thus restraining the torso torsion. To gain the required rotational magnitude for a somersault, gymnasts flexed the hip in the air so that the feet came closer to the hand.
  • 佐々木 万丈, 青柳 佳奈
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 463-477
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/06/15
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/05/17
    ジャーナル フリー
     The purpose of this study was to investigate how female high school tennis players recognized their opponents' physical features and outfit, whether or not those features affected player performance, and the extent to which this recognition was related to the level of sports competition trait anxiety and competitive psychological ability. The study subjects were 64 female students (mean age 16.9±.72 yr) who belonged to a high school tennis club. We created 15 questions relating to the physical features and outfit of their opponents and asked the subjects to what extent they were concerned about each feature, and whether each feature had a negative, positive, or zero effect on their performance. In addition, for each subject, we applied the trait anxiety inventory for sports and the diagnostic inventory of competitive psychological ability for athletes. The results revealed that players with fewer years of competitive experience and those with less competitiveness tended to be more concerned about their opponent's physical features, such as their height, physique, and skin tan, as well as the characteristics of their outfit, such as the color and design of their uniform and their racket brand. They also considered whether such features had a negative effect on their performance. Players who showed high trait anxiety, as well as those who had lower psychological competitive ability, were particularly concerned about features of their opponent's outfit. It appeared that their impression of the opponent's physical ability and expertise was significantly affected by the opponent's outfit. Finally, we investigated the psychological skills required to avoid being negatively affected by the features of opponents, and defined a number of issues for future study.
  • 山本 浩二 , 中須賀 巧, 島本 好平 , 杉山 佳生, 尼子 尚公
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 479-500
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/06/16
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/05/11
    ジャーナル フリー
     The purpose of this study was to develop a scale for measurement of students' perception of feedback behavior in junior high school physical education classes, in order to consider effective feedback through comparisons of gender, grade level, and learning outcomes.
     First, 36 items for assessment of feedback behavior in physical education classes were developed based on the feedback frameworks of Takahashi et al. (1991), from various previous studies on teacher behavior, and the behavior of teachers and students in physical education videos. Then, a preliminary survey of 1092 junior high school students (boys: 561, girls: 531, first year: 250, second year: 325, third year: 517) was conducted. The content of the items mainly related to negative feedback was then revised, and 36 items were selected. Next, the main survey was conducted on 1339 junior high school students (boys: 728, girls: 611; first year: 452, second year: 468, third year: 419; mean age: 13.22±.94) using the 36 items selected in the preliminary survey. Based on exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, the cognitive structure of feedback behaviors in physical education classes was found to include 4 factors: “praise”, “advice on motor skills”, “reprimands for class behavior”, and “criticism of motor skills”. The reliability was confirmed using Cronbach's α. Furthermore, the validity was verified by the correlation coefficient and analysis of variance between each subscale based on gender and grade, and shown to be generally satisfactory. Finally, multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the effects of feedback behaviors on learning outcomes in physical education classes. The results showed that positive and corrective feedback behaviors positively affected all of the learning outcomes. On the other hand, negative feedback behavior had a negative effect on some of the learning outcomes for girls.
     Therefore, it was confirmed that each subscale had generally satisfactory reliability and validity. Finally, validation of the causal model and case studies to assess the goals of health and physical education were considered necessary as future issues.
  • 中学校体育連盟は教育的平等主義と競技的選抜主義の相克をどう意味づけたのか
    中澤 篤史
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 501-517
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/07/07
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/06/02
    ジャーナル フリー
     The overabundance of extracurricular sports activities in Japan has been called into question. Its symbol is the Nippon Junior High School Tournament held by Nippon Junior High School Physical Culture Association. How was this event established? The purpose of this study was to analyze the process by which the tournament was established and to examine the relationship between education and competition in school sports.
     Previous studies have sought the reasons for the establishment of the national championships with the relaxation of standards for external competitions in accordance with the demands of sports federations, and have viewed the process as one in which competition disparaged education. This approach assumes that education and competition have a dichotomous relationship that is mutually incompatible, and the conflict between educative egalitarianism and competitive elitism has been viewed as a specific issue.
     However, this view does not allow us to understand why the Junior High School Physical Culture Association, which had been trying to suppress the national championships, turned around and held the Nippon Junior High School Tournament. In this study, we reviewed this issue from the perspective of the Junior High School Physical Culture Association, and clarified the active role it played in reorganizing the national championships in order to solve inherent educational problems, while competing with the sports federations that began holding the national championships.
     For the Junior High School Physical Culture Association, the process of establishing national championships was not a process in which athletic competition disparaged education, but one in which education was achieved through competition. How did it interpret the conflict between educative egalitarianism and competitive elitism?
     The Junior High School Physical Culture Association did not abandon educative egalitarianism while finding significance in competitive elitism. Rather, it placed more emphasis on the former in order to justify the significance of competitive selection. The national championships must be open to all students equally, not just to a few elite athletes, and they were interpreted as meaningful because the winners were selected after all students had participated. In this way, the conflicts between educative egalitarianism and competitive elitism were overcome, and as a result, the Nippon Junior High School Tournament was established. This was a historical turning point in the “overheating” of junior high school sports.
  • 沼津 直樹, 藤井 範久, 小井土 正亮
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 519-536
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/07/08
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/05/14
    ジャーナル フリー
     This study aimed to clarify the biomechanical characteristics of preparatory motions required for defensive diving by soccer goalkeepers (GKs). Seventeen collegiate male GKs and 14 collegiate male outfield players (strikers) participated. The experimental setup was based on a previous study (Numazu et al., 2019), and the experiment was conducted using simulated shooting situations in the penalty area. Three-dimensional coordinate data for the GKs and strikers were captured using 2 motion capture systems with 24 cameras (250 Hz, 16 cameras for the GKs and 8 cameras for the strikers). The 2 systems were synchronized by an analog signal (1000 Hz). We analyzed 430 trials where the GKs dived toward the shot (NU: 75 trials, NM: 94 trials, NL: 37 trials, FU: 58 trials, FM: 83 trials, and FL: 83 trials). The participating GKs performed a small jumping motion vertically upward, similar to a split-step, as a preparatory motion. The primary variables computed were as follows: elapsed time of preparatory motion, velocity of the center of gravity at takeoff in the frontal plane, stance width divided by leg length, height of preparatory motion, segment angle of the trunk in the sagittal plane, and angles of the lower limb joints. The major findings were as follows: 1) To respond quickly to the shot, the GKs leaned the trunk forward and flexed the lower leg joints, externally rotated the hip joints of both legs, abducted the hip joints, and opened the feet to 70% of the leg length. 2) GKs performed the take-off of the preparatory motion simultaneously when the striker made contact between the support leg and the ground. 3) It was considered that GKs changed their movement to match the flight trajectory of the ball later than CSon.
  • 小学生の走り幅跳びを対象として
    志村 美穂 , 苅山 靖 , 尾縣 貢
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 577-589
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/07/16
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー
     The rhythm adjustment ability of elementary school students was evaluated quantitatively with reference to the structure of movements in the long jump. The items analyzed included a 20-m run, two 20-m runs over mini hurdles placed at different intervals, a standing broad jump, and a long jump. Coefficients of correlation between the RA ratio (Rhythm Adjustment ability) for the 20-m mini hurdle and 20-m run and other measured items were calculated, in addition the effect of the RA ratio on the long jump. The results showed that RA ratio is important for the long jump distance, and that the long jump distance was significantly influenced by speed (20-m run), leg power (standing broad jump) and RA ratio. It was also shown that the contribution of RA ratio was equivalent to the contribution of speed, and higher than the contribution of leg power. These results suggest that the RA ratio is valid for evaluation of the rhythm adjustment ability.
  • 鈴木 崚太, 前田 正登
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 591-603
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/07/30
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー
     The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between basketball shooting distance and release parameters (i.e., release position, speed, and angle), and how the latter are adjusted according to increases or decreases in the shot distance. The subjects were eight male university basketball players who took 50 shots from each of seven shooting positions (3.75 m, 4.75 m, 5.75 m, 6.25 m, 6.75 m, 7.25 m, and 7.75 m from the center of the hoop). Two high-speed video cameras (120 fps) were used to capture the shooting motion and trajectory of the ball after release. The video images were analyzed using a two-dimensional direct linear transformation method, and the variables of the arrival position and the release parameters of the ball were calculated. It was revealed that when the shot distance was large, the average value of the arrival position of the shot ball may not lie within the hoop. This suggested that when considering how to adjust the release parameters with increasing shot distance, it was necessary to distinguish whether or not the average value of the arrival position of the shot ball would lie inside the hoop. As to the relationship between shot distance and the release parameters, it was considered that the subjects adjusted these parameters by decreasing the release angle while increasing the release speed when the shot was attempted 5.75 or 6.25 m from the hoop. Furthermore, when the distance to the hoop was ≤6.25 m, the actual release angle was slightly larger than the optimal release angle, and both of these parameters decreased as the shot distance increased. Therefore, it was thought that the optimal release angle could be used as a guide for adjusting the release angle. As the shot distance increased, the distance from the shooting position to the release position tended to increase, but the release height did not change significantly. However, for all subjects, the change in the release distance or release height with increasing shot distance differed between shooting positions of ≤6.25 m and ≥6.75 m from the center of the hoop. This suggests that the way force is applied to the ball in the shooting motion between these positions may change as the shot distance increases.
  • 村山 大輔
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 605-618
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/08/09
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/06/21
    ジャーナル フリー
     Artistic gymnastics involves a huge number of elements. In order to plan training for the future, it is necessary to have a grasp of trends and developments for each apparatus and identify techniques that are worth passing on (Sano and Watanabe, 2019b). The evolution of elements and techniques for uneven bars (UB) up to around 1970 was described in Coaching of Artistic Gymnastics (Kaneko, 1974). However, the historical transition of elements and techniques that has occurred since then has not yet been thoroughly analyzed.
     In this study, through an analysis of trends in the historical development of elements and techniques related to UB, we clarified the factors associated with the development of UB elements with the aim of developing a systematic theory of gymnastics elements.
     We collected and organized historical data on UB, including rules, video materials, and research materials. The study was carried out using the method of historical research on sports technology adopted by Kishino (1972). From the results of the survey, we were able to grasp the timing and tendencies of rapid technological developments in UB, and searched for items that had had the most significant impact.
     The results of this research are summarized as follows.
     1. The period from the introduction of the UB apparatus up to 1974 was characterized by the development of original morphology, and the concept of “flow-oriented exercise” was adopted and developed.
     2. From 1975 to 1992, the adoption of the giant backward swing led to an increase in the distance between the bars, which greatly changed the developmental direction of the technique. In this era, “pursuit of the terminal phase” evolved.
     3. From 1993 to 2021, “high difficulty orientation” evolved. Also, during this period, revision of the rules promoted developments designed to make existing structures more complex, and the occurrence of original morphology decreased.
     As of 2021, it can be said that changes in the elements of UB have tended to complicate the structure of the technique. In the future, it may be effective to formulate rules that place high value on new techniques that are considered to be creative forms.
  • 久保 昂大, 内田 若希, 杉山 佳生
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 645-656
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/08/11
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/06/25
    ジャーナル フリー
     Despite efforts to eradicate corporal punishment in school extracurricular sports settings, it is still considered a problem in Japan. One of the reasons for this is that a number of individuals still retain a favorable attitude toward corporal punishment. In fact, previous studies have shown that individuals who have experienced corporal punishment themselves tend to maintain such attitudes. Therefore, it seems necessary to examine the factors affecting the attitude of such individuals to corporal punishment. In this study, we focused on disposition for critical thinking as one such factor. This cross-sectional study examined (1) whether condoning corporal punishment among those who have experienced it is associated with their disposition for critical thinking, and (2) whether disposition for critical thinking in those individuals moderates the relationship between condoning corporal punishment and a positive perception of corporal punishment. We conducted an online survey of 513 participants who had experienced corporal punishment in school extracurricular sports settings. Participants responded to questions relating to age, sex, educational background, favorable attitudes toward corporal punishment, positive perceptions of corporal punishment experiences, critical thinking disposition, aggression, and knowledge of laws regarding corporal punishment. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis, with favorable attitudes toward corporal punishment as the objective variable, showed that the partial regression coefficient for critical thinking disposition was significant. The results indicated that those who had a disposition for critical thinking tended not to view toward corporal punishment favorably. The interaction between a positive perception of the corporal punishment experience and critical thinking disposition was also significant. Furthermore, the relationship between a positive perception of the corporal punishment experience and a favorable attitude toward corporal punishment was weaker for those who had higher critical thinking disposition scores than for those with lower scores. The present results suggest that fostering a disposition for critical thinking among individuals who have experienced corporal punishment may help to prevent the development of favorable attitudes toward it.
  • 回避的態度を媒介としたモデルの検討
    當山 貴弘, 中須賀 巧, 杉山 佳生
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 687-697
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/08/18
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
     This study examined the relationship among the degree of enthusiasm, avoiding attitude, and adjustment to physical education in junior high school students. The sample comprised 708 students (male=371, female=337, mean age=13.92±.89 yr). The measures included scales for determining any inferiority complex in connection with physical education classes (C-MS [Complex focused on Motor Skills] and C-PPF [Complex focused on Psychosocial and Physical Factors eventually leading to an inferiority complex]) developed by Sasaki and Suko (2016), a scale for determining adjustment to physical education classes (intention of solidarity and adjustment to physical education classes) developed by Sasaki (2003), and students' liking or disliking for physical education classes. The relationship between the students' degree of enthusiasm for physical education classes and their tendency to avoid them or adjust to them was examined using covariance structure analysis. The results suggested the following: (1) The degree of enthusiasm for physical education classes had a direct positive influence on intention for solidarity and adjustment to physical education classes. (2) The degree of enthusiasm for physical education classes had a negative influence on C-MS, which in turn had a positive influence on intention for solidarity. (3) The degree of enthusiasm for physical education classes had a negative influence on C-PPF, which in turn had a negative influence on intention for solidarity and adjustment to physical education classes. In conclusion, to enhance the adjustment of students to physical education classes, it is important to improve their degree of enthusiasm and to reduce C-PPF.
  • 相馬 満利, 柏木 悠, 船渡 和男
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 699-714
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/08/23
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/07/07
    ジャーナル フリー
     The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between morphological characteristics and performance in Japanese elite swimmers and non-athletes. The participants included Japanese elite swimmers (age: 20.8 ± 1.7 yr, height: 173.4 ± 5.7 cm, weight: 70.1 ± 6.0 kg, FINA points: 805 ± 72) and non-athletes (age: 19.8 ± 2.4 yr, height: 171.1 ± 5.7 cm, weight: 62.1 ± 8.9 kg). A 3-D whole-body line scanner (BLS; Hamamatsu Photonics) in contact with the skin was used to scan the standing whole body of each subject. Body fat was measured using an air displacement plethysmograph, which uses BODPOD (Body Composition System Mab-1000) to determine body composition (body fat and lean body mass). A homologous body model (HBM) was constructed by fitting the whole-body laser scan polygon data to a generic template model based on anatomical landmarks. The HBM consisted of 20,000 vertex of the same topology, and each data point was calculated based on the anatomical landmarks. SDs were used for principal component analysis. For examining the relationship with competition performance, the International Swimming Federation (FINA) points system was adopted. FINA points scores allow comparisons of results among different events. The points (P) are calculated from the swim time (T) and the base time (B) in seconds using the following formula: P = 1000 * (B / T) 3
     The results obtained were as follows:
    (1) The data on 3-D human body shape obtained using the BLS and BODPOD revealed that in comparison nonathletes, the swimmers had a significantly higher body weight, BMI, lean body mass and chest (p<0.001), and a significantly smaller abdominal circumference/chest circumference ratio.
    (2) When normalized to body height, swimmers had larger chest, abdominal and latissimus dorsi muscles.
    (3) The FINA points score was associated with body shape. The HBM of the 3-D body shape made it possible individual differences and characteristics of body shape.
     These results suggest that a specific somatotype is required to reach an elite level in sport, and that there is a need to integrate somatotype data between scientific instruments for selecting talent in artistic swimmers. Principal component analysis of the HBM made it possible to establish a method for quantification of 3-D body shape. The present findings suggest that use of a HBM reveals details of body shape that cannot be achieved from morphological measurement, thus opening a new perspective for sports research.
  • 村冨 浩太朗, 太田 和希 , 小嶺 肇之 , 谷川 聡 , 山崎 一彦, 前村 公彦
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 715-729
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/08/24
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/07/14
    ジャーナル フリー
     In the 400-m hurdles, race patterns based on physical fitness are an essential consideration for better performance. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between race patterns and physical fitness characteristics in male 400-m hurdlers. Thirteen collegiate 400-m hurdlers underwent measurement of maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Race analyses were also conducted. The results revealed significant correlations between the 400-m hurdles running time and MAOD (r = −0.674, p <0.05) and VO2max (r = −0.607, p <0.05). There were also significant correlations between MAOD and running speed in the early phase (r = 0.839, p <0.001) and middle phase (r = 0.605, p <0.05), and between VO2max and running speed in the middle phase (r = 0.670, p <0.05) and late phase (r = 0.565, p <0.05). It was possible to classify the subjects into four types based on their physical fitness characteristics, and different race patterns were demonstrated based on fitness type. In particular, two subjects with similar times (C: aerobic type, E: anaerobic type) had very different pacing strategies. These results suggest that anaerobic and aerobic capacities affect the speed in each phase of the 400-m hurdles, and that therefore individual physical fitness characteristics consequently affect the entire race pattern. These findings will be valuable when applying the principle of individuality to training strategies for 400-m hurdlers.
  • 東京市職員磯村英一の厚生観と紀元2600年記念事業部の動向を中心に
    関口 雄飛
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 731-743
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/08/26
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/07/21
    ジャーナル フリー
     The purpose of this study was to examine how the acting events of the First Japan Recreation Congress (JRC) were adopted by tracking the organizing process, focusing on trends in Isomura's view of Kosei and the Memorial Division. The study focused on the Shimin Kosei Sumo Taikai (sumo tournament), Shimin Kosei Nanshiki Yakyu Taikai (Japanese-style baseball tournament), and Fujin Kosei no Yube (gymnastics, Japanese archery, dance, march, music, entertainment). Initially, the Memorial Division, centered on Isomura and Tanigawa, was expected within the Tokyo city hall. However, after the Tokyo Olympics and the World Expo were returned or postponed, the Memorial Division remained irrelevant. The Memorial Division was also criticized for its survival within Tokyo city hall. However, the Memorial Division continued its activities. The Memorial Division i) devised the Chokoku seishin senyo undo as an alternative project for the Tokyo Olympics and the World Expo, ii) recognized the importance of the Kosei Undo (recreation movement) as part of the Chokoku seishin senyo undo, and c) positioned the First JRC as a platform for promoting and developing the Kosei Undo in Tokyo City. Accordingly, the format of the First JRC changed significantly from an independent holding of the Japan Recreation Association (JRA) and Tokyo City. Subsequently, Shimin Kosei Sumo Taikai, Shimin Kosei Nanshiki Yakyu Taikai, and Fujin Kosei no Yube were adopted as acting events. The 3 acting events reflected Isomura's view of Kosei, which defines the purpose of the Kosei Undo as “improvement of human resources” and its system as knowledge, virtue, and body, and the plan of the commemorative division. To summarize, Shimin Kosei Sumo Taikai, Shimin Kosei Nanshiki Yakyu Taikai, and Fujin Kosei no Yube were adopted as acting events in the First JRC by Isomura, in response to the project of the Memorial Division that had lost their original purpose. Isomura's response is based on his perspective of Kosei.
  • 射出球に対するキック動作に着目して
    久保田 大智 , 藤井 範久
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 745-760
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/09/22
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
     This study was conducted to 1) investigate differences in soccer side-foot kicking of a launched ball (LB) and a stationary ball (SB), and 2) to clarify how these side-foot kicking motions change according to variations in kicking direction. Ten male collegiate soccer players performed side-foot kicks with their preferred leg. The participants were asked to kick the SB and the LB toward the center of 2 pylons placed 1.5 m apart and 7 m away. Additionally, they were asked to kick the LB towards 2 targets placed 30° clockwise and counterclockwise from the frontal target. A ball launcher machine, placed 10 m ahead at a 60° angle from the frontal target, was used to launch the balls. The three-dimensional coordinates of reflective markers attached to the participants' bodies and the ball were recorded using a motion analysis system (VICON-MX, Vicon Motion Systems, 20 cameras, 500 Hz). The primary variables computed were: the point of ball impact, the rotation angles of the torso and pelvis, the joint angles of the kicking leg, and the posture of the bilateral feet. Our results indicated that the participants tended to kick the upper portion of the LB. At the toe-off of the kicking leg, the clockwise rotation angles of the torso and pelvis were significantly larger when kicking the LB. During the back-swing phase, a significantly smaller hip extension angle and a significantly larger hip abduction angle of the kicking leg were observed when kicking the LB. During the forward swing phase, the kicking leg hip flexion and abduction angles were significantly larger when kicking the LB. Lastly, when the participants kicked the LB towards the angled targets, they oriented the toes of the supporting leg, torso, and pelvis towards the target. These results suggest that the postures of the torso and pelvis responded to the target direction and movement of the launched ball. Thus, matching the kicking leg motion to the pelvis posture was essential when kicking a moving ball. In addition, it was also important to change the foot contact of the supporting leg to accommodate the kicking direction.
  • 太田 和希, 吉田 拓矢 , 小野 響也 , 前村 公彦 , 谷川 聡
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 793-808
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/09/29
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/08/23
    ジャーナル フリー
     This study investigated the relationships between pelvic behavior and impulse of ground reaction force as well as leg backward swing velocity during the acceleration phase and full speed phase of sprint running. Eleven male sprinters performed 30-m and 60-m sprints from a crouching start at maximal effort. Threedimensional motion analysis was performed to investigate the relationships between pelvic behavior and impulse of ground reaction force as well as leg backward swing velocity during the acceleration phase and full speed phase of sprinting running. The angular displacement of the pelvic free leg side lateral flexion in the frontal plane showed a significant positive correlation with the propulsion and vertical impulse during the acceleration phase. Also, the lumbosacral free leg side lateral flexion angular impulse showed a significant positive correlation with the propulsion and vertical impulse during the acceleration phase. Additionally, the lumbosacral free leg side torsion angular impulse showed a significant positive correlation with the peak value of the free leg backward swing velocity during the full speed phase. Therefore, the results obtained during the acceleration phase suggest that the pelvic free leg side lateral flexion was able to increase the propulsion and vertical impulse, whereas during the full speed phase, the pelvic free leg side rotation contributed to increasing the free leg backward swing velocity.
  • いわゆる「私利私欲」の観点から
    笠野 英弘, ライトナー カトリン ユミコ
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 809-827
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/10/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/08/18
    ジャーナル フリー
     The purpose of this study was to explore whether sport organizations in Germany can be regarded as public-sector concerns that ensure their public nature through affirmation of self-interest, and to clarify the practices of these organizations. Kato (2001) has explained the process of how publicness can be created via self-interest based on the logic that external relationships are built by thoroughly implementing internal values. This explanation is consistent with the concept of publicness suggested by Saito (2000), which considers the fact that mutual recognition of self-interest assures plurality of values. Finally, we explain how Saito's concept of publicness itself not only assures self-interest, but can also be regarded as a concept of publicness that is assured by self-interest. Next, we critically examine the views of Aruga (2006, 2011a, 2011b, 2013) regarding publicness based on self-interest. The results indicate that sport organizations in Germany can be regarded as public-sector associations that assure their public nature based on affirmation of self-interest. Finally, through interviews and their interpretation, it has become apparent that the practices of sport organizations in Germany include the practice of integration assuring plurality of values, the practice of building external relationships through implementation of internal values, and active practices toward authorities, such as the federal government or provincial governments. Overall, we can say that these practices can assure publicness based on self-interest.
  • 大島 雄治
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 829-844
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/10/13
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
     This study aimed to develop a method for calculation of camera pan and tilt angles using a fixpoint for which the three-dimensional coordinates and their corresponding points were unknown, and filmed by multiple cameras.
     The filming process was as follows. (1) The camera platform position and focal length were set to allow filming of a 4-m range within the control-volume range of 1.17 m × 20.00 m × 1.80 m. (2) Without changing the camera platform position or and focal length, cameras at 3 positions were panned and tilted to film the points whose three-dimensional coordinates beyond the control volume range were known. (3) The cameras were then panned and tilted to film a fixpoint and corresponding points within the control volume range. The digitizer coordinates of the fixpoints, the corresponding points, and the points for which the three-dimensional coordinates were known were collected. The focal length, camera platform position, and roll angle of the camera platform were estimated using the points of which three-dimensional coordinates were known. The pan and tilt angles of the camera platform at each moment during the filming of the control volume were estimated using the fixpoint and corresponding points. Hybrid particle swarm optimization and a genetic algorithm were used for estimating the camera parameters. The three-dimensional coordinates used as accuracy verification markers (105 points) within the control volume range were reconstructed using the estimated camera parameters. The RMS error of the accuracy verification markers was 6.8 mm. These results show that the proposed method can be adapted for collection of three-dimensional coordinates.
  • 春田-丹下論争について
    石田 智巳, 制野 俊弘
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 845-857
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/10/14
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     Yasuo Tange wrote about the controversy related to the nature of physical education that occurred around 1960, although the actual controversy was between Tange and Masaharu Haruta. Tange stated that Haruta's criticism was useful in the development of the motor culture theory. However, he did not address its specific impact. Many previous studies have described the process of Tange's construction of the motor culture theory; however, the influence of Haruta has never been discussed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of Haruta on Tange's process of constructing his theory of motor culture by reviewing the literature at that time. It became clear that Tange's stipulation in 1960 that “physical education is education mediated by motor culture” was because of Haruta's criticism that the democratic human development Tange had considered up to that point could not be a unique goal of physical education. It also became clear that Tange, who in 1960 had emphasized the joy of children in the pursuit of motor culture, developed his theory of motor culture in 1963 after gaining from Haruta the viewpoints of physical education for the people, education to overcome social contradictions, and having children create a new motor culture.
  • 村上 祐介 , 濱田 大佐, 菅村 玄二
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 859-877
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/10/16
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     We examined the effects of postural intervention using a “risshin chair” (an upright support seat assisting a zazen-like posture) on posture maintenance, classroom time perception, implicit affect, mental health, and life meaningfulness in an actual high school setting. Twenty-seven second-grade high school students (15 girls and 12 boys; Mage = 16.93 years, SD = 0.27) sat on either a conventional chair or a risshin chair in A-B-A order for approximately four weeks in total. One-way ANOVA revealed that (a) mental health score was highest in the intervention period than in the pre- or post-intervention period (p < .001; p = .002), and that (b) the living in the present moment score was higher in the intervention period than in the pre-intervention period (p < .001). Twocondition within-participant serial mediation analysis also showed that the use of the risshin chair affected mental health and daily meaning in life through a higher level of postural improvement and a faster level of classroom time perception change (indirect effect = 0.27, 95% CI [0.02, 0.74]; 0.28, 95% CI [0.04, 0.66]). The need for examining the effectiveness of longer-term postural interventions was discussed.
  • 仏印植民地報告書(1925-1926年度)の分析的視点から
    山口 拓
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 879-895
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/11/09
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/09/21
    ジャーナル フリー
     This paper describes a study of school physical education (PE) in French Indochina to cover the existing lack of knowledge on the developmental process of PE in developing countries. The study focused specifically on how PE developed in the Indochina Union, based on “colonial experience” in each region of French Indochina.
     A historical overview revealed that the former colonial countries had reconstructed their own education models in response to the demands of the extrinsic development model imposed by the colonial government. However, it was suggested that individual societal values may have regulated the behavior of the colonial people, and redefined the characteristics of PE.
     Regarding the process by which PE had been introduced, it was found that after sporadic and uneven efforts at gymnastics education based on the “General regulation of education” in 1917, the introduction of PE in the Indochina Union had gained momentum as a result of “Instruction n°26” issued by the Superior General Commander in 1921 and the “General Regulation of Physical Education” approved by the Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts.
     Moreover, based on failures experienced in the early stages, the French-Indochina administration took measures to prepare for the introduction of full-scale PE through a series of “arrêté” in 1924, including the signing of an agreement between the University and Military, provision of special allowances to military instructors, establishment of the Regional Center for Physical Instruction (CRIP), and physiological surveys conducted by the special committee.
     Furthermore, it was revealed that the PE program started in French Indochina through the 1925 PE campaign included the establishment of PE classes and annual sports festivals through the PE facilities established at fullexercise schools (école de plein exercice), and a teacher training system that was organized in 1926 by adopting the teaching methods of the Joinville School, distribution of PE manuals, and establishment of several PE training courses for teachers.
  • 當山 貴弘 , 中須賀 巧, 杉山 佳生
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 897-914
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/11/09
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/09/22
    ジャーナル フリー
     In this study, by positioning an inferiority complex regarding physical education as an avoidance attitude, we studied the reciprocal relationships between physical competence and avoidance attitudes in physical education among elementary and junior high school students. A three-wave panel was used to investigate data for 155 elementary (64 male, 91 female) and 330 junior high school students (180 male, 150 female), who completed questionnaires. The measures included assessment of an inferiority complex in terms of a physical education class scale (avoidance attitude focused on motor skills and a complex focused on psychosocial and physical factors, causing feelings of inferiority that would develop into an avoidance attitude) developed by Sasaki and Suko (2016), and a physical competence scale (perceived physical competence, feeling of control and peer and teacher acceptance) developed by Okazawa et al. (1996). The validity of the three-wave, cross-lagged effect model was verified using structural equation modeling. In addition, simultaneous multi-population analysis was verified for both boys and girls. The results suggested the following processes: (1) In elementary school students, perceived physical competence has a negative effect on avoidance attitudes to physical education (including both an avoidance attitude focused on motor skills and a complex focused on psychosocial and physical factors, causing feelings of inferiority that develop into an avoidance attitude). (2) In junior high school students, an avoidance attitude focused on motor skills as well as perceived physical competence and peer and teacher acceptance had negative mutual effects. Therefore, the causal relationship between physical competence and avoidance attitude in physical education was shown to differ between elementary and junior high school students.
  • 亀井 誠生, 岡本 直輝
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 929-945
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/11/11
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/10/01
    ジャーナル フリー
     Since 2013, corporal punishment by coaches in athletic clubs has been decreasing. However, there have been instances of coaches perpetrating violence while coaching students, despite the existence of penalties for corporal punishment. Such instances may be due to individual personality, whereby feelings of dissatisfaction are easily translated into violence. In this study, we attempted to clarify the relationship between severe forms of coaching (corporal punishment, rants) and coaches' personalities. We obtained questionnaire responses from 425 college students regarding their experiences with corporal punishment and rants by their coaches and the Big Five personality traits of the coaches. Among the respondents, 21.9% (93 students) had experienced corporal punishment and 53.6% (227 students) had endured rants. Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted to identify four coach personality clusters (Resilients, Overcontrollers, Undercontrollers, Non-identifiables). A comparison among the clusters revealed that overcontrolling coaches (high neuroticism, low agreeableness) exhibited a significantly higher frequency of corporal punishment and rants. These results indicate that a fundamental understanding of the individual characteristics behind the violent behavior (social behavior) of coaches is essential for eradication of violence such as corporal punishment and rants.
  • 牛来 千穂子 , 水落 文夫, 内山 治樹
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 961-981
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/11/18
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/10/15
    ジャーナル フリー
     This study aimed to develop a “Scale for Teamwork in Sport” (STS) and examine its reliability and validity. We conducted a questionnaire survey of 432 athletes from 45 university sports teams across Japan. Based on exploratory factor analysis, 4 upper factors, 10 lower factors, and 40 items were extracted. The 4 upper factors, “team orientation”, “team leadership”, “team process”, and “communication” corresponded to Dickinson and McIntyre's (1997) conceptual model. The following results were obtained regarding the reliability and validity of the STS: 1) Its reliability was confirmed via sufficient internal consistency and temporal stability of Cronbach's alpha and retest reliability coefficients. 2) A significant correlation was found between the STS and factors of an existing scale. The average score for each STS factor of the team with high competition level was significantly high. Therefore, the criterion-related validity of the scale was supported. 3) As a result of confirmatory factor analysis, the goodness-of-fit of the model found in all 4 scales corresponded to the upper factors. In addition, covariance structure analysis was conducted on the validation model, and its goodness-of-fit was acceptable. Furthermore, significant path coefficients were confirmed among the elements, which excluded the path from “monitoring” to “coordination”. These results support the construct validity of the STS. These findings indicate that the STS has high reliability and validity and can evaluate teamwork in sports from a comprehensive and process perspective. Hence, a new simplified scale was developed that conformed to Dickinson and McIntyre's (1997) teamwork model and could be used in sports. These results provide new insight on team building.
  • 畑浦 秀哉, 河合 和司 , 小川 剛司, 鍋倉 賢治
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 983-993
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/11/18
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/11/02
    ジャーナル フリー
     The purpose of this study was to evaluate economy during supramaximal exercise using accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD), and to clarify how it relates to anaerobic and aerobic capacity, short-distance cycling and running performance. Eight well-trained sprinters participated in the experiment using a bicycle ergometer. The subjects performed an incremental exercise test to measure their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and to estimate their oxygen demand during supramaximal exercise. On different days, the following tests were performed in a random order: the 30-s Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), 30-s constant-load exercise at 180%VO2max (sprint test), the maximum accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) test at 120%VO2max, and a 300-m run time trial. AOD during the sprint test divided by the work rate during the sprint test was evaluated as the sprint economy (SE). The main finding was that the SE evaluated in the sprint test was significantly correlated with not only peak power in the WAnT (r = 0.73, p = 0.04), but also the 300-m run time (r = 0.77, p = 0.03). In conclusion, the SE evaluated by AOD was found to be related to power output during the WAnT.
実践研究
  • 環境保全メッセージは有効か?
    松本 裕史
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 319-327
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/05/18
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/03/23
    ジャーナル フリー
     Physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of non-communicable diseases. A recent Japanese national health and nutrition survey has demonstrated that only 12.9% of young women exercise regularly despite these health benefits. Moreover, sufficient evidence exists that a nudge can encourage stair climbing. However, studies examining the effects of nudge message content are lacking. To address this research gap, this study investigated the effectiveness of the nudge message content for young women for encouraging the use of stairs instead of escalators at a train station.
     We employed a quasi-experimental design and conducted a count of individuals who used stairs/escalators over a span of 36 days. A 3-week baseline period was followed by two 3-week periods with motivational message interventions. The first 3-week intervention used a nudge that emphasized a healthy lifestyle, whereas that for the second 3-week intervention highlighted an environmentally friendly lifestyle. Chi-square tests were conducted to compare the use of stairs versus escalators at the baseline and between the two 3-week interventions with nudge messages for healthy and environmentally friendly lifestyles.
     The authors noted 34,696 observations of individuals using stairs or adjacent escalators within the study period. The results indicate that the use of stairs significantly increased among young women only during the intervention period with environmentally friendly nudge messages, which were considered to be more effective among young women than the healthy lifestyle nudge messages. Accordingly, we suggest that attention toward a content that can motivate the target population should be increased in formulating nudge messages aimed at health promotion.
  • 定型発達児との比較検討から
    坂本 昭裕 , 大友 あかね , 前川 真生子, 吉松 梓
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 361-377
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/05/21
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/04/20
    ジャーナル フリー
     The purpose of this study was to implement integrated long-term camp therapy and examine its effect on perceived self-positiveness, sense of acceptance and social skills in children with developmental disorders, through a comparison with typically developing children. The study participants were 20 children with developmental disorders (16 males and 4 females; average age: 13.43 ± 0.84 years) and 66 typically developing children (43 males and 23 females; average age: 12.0 ± 6.73 years). These subjects completed assessments for the Sense of Self-Positiveness Scale (SSPS), Sense of Acceptance Scale (SAS), and Social Skills Scale in Camping (SSS-C) prior to camping (Pre), immediately after camping (Post1), and one month after camping (Post2). It was found that, the SSPS indicated an interaction and higher values for “self-confidence” and “self-expression and interpersonal positivity ” in the developmental disorders group in Post2. The SAS indicated a main effect of group and time period. In addition, the SSS-C indicated main effect of group and time period on “behavior to develop relations” and “behavior to participate in relations”. Furthermore, the scores for the SSPS, SAS, and SSS-C in the typical development group were higher than those in the developmental disorder group. Finally, when structural equation modeling was used to consider interrelationships among sense of self-positiveness, sense of acceptance, and social skills in children with developmental disorders, it was found that their sense of awareness of others was increased by a sense of acceptance with social skills as an intermediary, whereas self-consciousness was improved by an increase in the sense of acceptance.
  • 山中 裕太, 村瀬 瑠美, 本間 三和子, 高木 英樹
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 619-644
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/08/09
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/06/21
    ジャーナル フリー
     The purpose of this study was to verify the educational effectiveness and outcomes of university swimming classes for enhancing self-preservation skills in the water, which had been formulated by Yamanaka et al. (2022), and to re-structure the teaching theory for these skills based on their design. Educational effectiveness was evaluated in terms of changes in students' water movement skills and a questionnaire survey. For analysis of changes in water movement skills, we used the results of 10-minute drifting, 12-minute swimming, and Stallman's skill check. Also, to analyze the educational outcomes of the class, we qualitatively analyzed the assignments in the class report to the students. The results of the skill measurements showed that the percentage of students who successfully achieved the 10-minute drifting and 12-minute swimming tasks was significantly higher in the last class session than in the first. In addition, for all measurements, the percentage of students who answered “I can do” in the last class session was significantly higher than in the first. Analysis of the class reports confirmed that the students were able to achieve the set objectives and tasks of the class. Consequently, the teaching theory for self-preservation ability in the water was re-structured by: (1) giving students the opportunity to experience coping with water disaster based on water movement skills and knowledge of underwater safety, (2) letting students experience various aquatic activities, (3) allowing students to recognize their own self-preservation skills in the water, and (4) enhancing the ability of students to cope with water disaster situations by allowing them to think of their own responses.
  • 保健体育科・部活動における指導の教材開発に向けて
    安永 太地, 上田 大介, 塩田 真吾
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 915-927
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/11/09
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/10/07
    ジャーナル フリー
     As harassment, such as power harassment and sexual harassment, in competitive sports has become a serious social problem in Japan in recent years, there is a need to develop educational approaches to protect the integrity of athletes. This study developed educational materials to promote awareness of harassment issues among top athletes and verify the effectiveness of these materials. To help athletes understand their behavior more objectively and to be more aware of what might be perceived as harassment, teaching materials on “sexual harassment” and “power harassment” situations were developed to educate them on perception differences. Then, a training session was conducted with top athletes to evaluate the teaching materials, and pre- and post-questionnaire surveys were conducted for individual and group events. This analysis revealed significant differences in the mean scores for “awareness of sexual harassment and power harassment” in both individual and group events. In addition, significant differences were found in “relevance of sexual harassment and power harassment to oneself” in the individual category. This suggests that these materials had raised athletes' awareness of the parties involved in harassment issues.
研究資料
  • 性差と能力差に着目して
    比留間 浩介
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 79-90
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/02/10
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/12/14
    ジャーナル フリー
     The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of the arm swing movements of upper grade elementary school children during sprinting from the viewpoint of gender and differences in sprinting ability.
     Fifty-three children were asked to run 50 m and filmed from the side with a video camera. The subjects were then classified into 3 groups on the basis of their 50-meter sprinting time: an Excellent group (Group E), a Poor group (Group P), and an Average group (Group A). Kinematic data for the arm swing movements were then calculated and compared according to gender and differences in sprinting ability. The main results were as follows.
     1) A gender difference in upper arm movement was found in the minimum segment angle of the upper arm: girls swung their arms more forward than boys, even when groups with similar sprinting times were compared.
     2) When differences in upper arm movement were examined for each gender, it was found that the boys in group E showed significantly larger differences than those in groups A and P, and that group E swung their arms back and forth more widely than the other groups. With regard to upper arm angular velocity, which is an index of “arm swing speed”, group E group showed a significantly larger value than group P, and group E showed a faster backward arm swing. On the other hand, no such tendency was observed in girls, and no significant difference was found among the 3 groups with different sprinting speeds.
     3) In terms of gender differences in elbow joint movement, there were no significant differences in either angle or angular velocity between boys and girls.
     4) When the difference in elbow joint movement was examined for each gender, the maximum angle for girls in group E was significantly greater than that for girls in group A, but there were no significant differences in other areas.
     The above results indicate that the concepts of “swinging the arms back and forth significantly” and “swinging the arms fast”, which have been considered central for teaching during sprinting, are applicable to boys but not necessarily to girls. Furthermore, the concept of “maintaining elbow flexion” was not supported for both sexes.
  • 新谷 昴, 山崎 博和, 杉田 正明
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 103-112
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/02/22
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/12/14
    ジャーナル フリー
     Trampoline gymnastics have been included in the Olympic Games since the 2000 Sydney Olympics. Since then, many more countries have started programs for development of trampoline gymnastics. Although trampoline gymnastics include individual, synchronized and team events, only individual performance is included in the Olympics. Trampoline gymnastics include an initial routine and a second routine. The present study focused only on the second routine, and was designed to clarify how addition of the T score in 2011 has affected current trampoline gymnastics. The results of the World championships and All Japan championships held between 2011 and 2019 were compared, and the total scores and other scores were investigated. The transition evident in scores from 2011 to 2019 suggested that Japanese male athletes have lagged behind the world’s top players, whereas Japanese women athletes have been rapidly closing in on the top flight. Examination of the relationship between the total score and other scores for the top 30 male athletes in the 2019 World championships showed a strong positive correlation with the E score (r = 0.70). For women, on the other hand, there was a strong positive correlation with the T score (r = 0.71). These results may provide a useful basis for devising a strategy aimed at improvement of performance.
  • 小川 剛司 , 鉄口 宗弘 , 古和 悟, 吉田 雅行
    2022 年 67 巻 p. 157-167
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/04/02
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2022/01/12
    ジャーナル フリー
     This study aimed to investigate the effects of school closures due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on students' perceptions of physical activity and exercise. An online, form-based questionnaire was administered to students of elementary, junior high and high schools, and universities in Japan. The total number of respondents was 3,502. The questionnaire was designed to determine variations in anxiety about studying, physical fitness, and daily life, and the relative amounts of physical activity and exercise before and after school closures. The results demonstrated that anxiety about studying, physical fitness, and daily life following school closures caused by the COVID-19 pandemic differed according to gender and the type of school (P <0.05). The amounts of physical activity and exercise were both reduced. Additionally, the frequency and intensity of exercise decreased significantly among students who participated in sports clubs from junior high school through university (P <0.05). However, excercise frequency increased among university students not belonging to sports clubs (P <0.05). Weekly exercise frequency decreased among elementary through high school students (P <0.05) but increased among university students (P <0.05). Our results suggest that school closures have reduced the frequency and degree of physical activity and exercise among children and adolescents, as well as increasing their anxiety. We conclude that measures against the COVID-19 pandemic must focus on not only preventing the spread of infection but also health risks from a social viewpoint.
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