体育学研究
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
最新号
選択された号の論文の4件中1~4を表示しています
原著論文
  • 坂本 将基, 高柳 暁斗, 安東 大輔
    原稿種別: 原著論文
    2024 年 69 巻 p. 1-16
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/02/06
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2023/12/23
    ジャーナル フリー
     This study investigated the characteristics of visual behavior in skilled kendoists while judging the validity of strikes. A total of 19 expert and 19 novice kendoists were asked to judge the validity of strikes for men (head armor), do (side trunk covered by a stomach and chest protector), or kote (lower forearm covered by a gauntlet). Simultaneously, the participants' eye movements were recorded at 30 Hz, and the location at which their gaze was directed was identified. Additionally, the pupil area was calculated for each frame. Both expert and novice kendoists focused on the striker's shinai (bamboo sword) during the phase from 900 ms to 600 ms before striking, and on the site struck during the phase from the moment of striking to 300 ms after striking. However, during the phase from 600 ms before the strike to just before the strike, the experts tended to switch their gaze from the strikefur's shinai to the striking site earlier than the novices. Furthermore, the pupil areas of the experts were correlated with their years of experience in judging the validity of a strike to the men. The gaze behavior specific to expert kendoists, such as observing the striking area during the phase just before striking while exhibiting intense scrutiny, may be related to their superior ability to judge the validity of strikes.
  • 山下 龍一郎, 森井 大樹
    2024 年 69 巻 p. 17-32
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/02/06
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2023/12/27
    ジャーナル フリー
     Sports skills are acquired and developed on a subjective basis involving elements such as individual consciousness and sensing. Sports skills are not fixed elements, but change and evolve with time. In gymnastics, the backward giant swing on the horizontal bar is an extremely important basic skill, as mastering it largely determines the standard of horizontal bar performance. A conventional theory regarding this skill has spread both nationally and internationally. It posits that rotational acceleration is created by snapping, which requires breaking the shoulders and maximizing the extension and flexion of body joints to tap the body's hidden limits. In contrast, a top world-level performer who was the subject of the present study has argued that keeping the body tight rather than breaking is the key, thus completely going against the commonly held theory. The technical characteristics and significance of this gymnast's approach were investigated by category analysis based on the phenomenological movement theory. This revealed that this top performer created rotational acceleration by exploiting the reaction of the horizontal bar by maximizing its bounce. This bar reaction was produced by generating tension in the body during overhang phases by staying tight to prevent the shoulders, waist and chest from extending.
  • 奈良 光晴
    原稿種別: 研究論文
    2024 年 69 巻 p. 41-57
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/02/28
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2024/01/24
    ジャーナル フリー
     As regional sport has been raised as an important policy issue, this study examined the autonomy and independence of the Japan Sport Association (JSPO) as a private sport governing body based on discussions of governance. This was based on the fact that the JSPO defines sport as a universal culture based on enjoyment of free physical activity, in contrast to the definition of sport provided by the Japanese government in the Basic Act on Sports.
     Positioning the governance of sport as a way to address sport-related issues and dividing the governance of sport between the need to improve the organization's management and the methodology of decision-making in relation to the realization of methods that are suited to Japan, it is clear that conventional discussion of sports governance in Japan is biased toward the former. Moreover, it has become clear from overseas cases that such discussions have harmful effects such as strengthening of supervision by the government. In view of the lack of consideration of decision-making methods designed to realize the ideal form of sport in Japan, this study examined the ideal state of the JSPO from the viewpoint of public policy theory and public administration, and particularly social governance, which covers the state and activity of various civil sectors acting in cooperation.
     Based on the discussion promoted by Kiku (2001), it became clear that sport as defined and promoted by the JSPO has a public face and is subject to discussion throught social governance. In addition, it is considered that the JSPO can secure its autonomy and independence from its role as a social governance actor. Analysis of the JSPO's medium-term policy suggested that the ratio of subsidies to income, and discussions regarding the definition of sports at conferences, etc., revealed that the JSPO lacks autonomy and independence, and that issues of social governance remain to be addressed. These findings suggest that the JSPO needs autonomy and independence to promote sport under its own definition, based on discussions of social governance.
研究資料
  • 亀田 麻依, 野村 綾子, 今若 太郎, 谷中 拓哉, 稲葉 優希
    原稿種別: 研究論文
    2024 年 69 巻 p. 33-39
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/02/28
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2024/01/24
    ジャーナル フリー
     The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different measurements under 3 surface conditions on jump distance in the standing long jump. The participants were 15 members of a college male basketball team. In the experiment, each participant performed standing long jump tests under 3 surface conditions for maximal distance: 1) tartan track take off - sand landing, 2) wooden floor take off - artificial turf landing, and 3) mat take off - mat landing conditions. The jump distance was measured 3 times for the 3 conditions with a measuring tape, from which the longest jump distance was selected. The data were analyzed to assess differences in the conditions for jump distance and individual variability. The mat-mat condition resulted in lower performance than the other 2 conditions (by 3–5%). No significant differences in jump distance were found between the tartan track take off - sand landing and wooden floor take off - artificial turf landing conditions. In terms of individual variability, there were no significant differences in the coefficient of variation of the jump distance among the 3 conditions. These results suggest the need for awareness of the environmental surface conditions, since measurement of the standing long jump distance on soft surfaces, such as under mat take off - mat landing conditions, could result in a shortening of the distance by approximately 3-5%. In addition, the measurement environment should be standardized as far as possible when performing cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluations, as different surface conditions might result in different measurements.
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