2021 Volume 70 Issue 7 Pages 965-977
Due to the growing demand of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as supplements and pharmaceutical products worldwide, there are concerns about the exhaustion of n-3 PUFA supply sources. We have successfully prepared high-quality scallop oil (SCO), containing high eicosapentaenoic acid and phospholipids contents, from the internal organs of the Japanese giant scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis), which is the largest unutilized marine resource in Japan. This study compared the cholesterol-lowering effect of SCO with fish oil (menhaden oil, MO) and krill oil (KO) in obese type II diabetic KK-A y mice. Four-week-old male KK-A y mice were divided into four groups; the control group was fed the AIN93G-modified high-fat (3 wt% soybean oil + 17 wt% lard) diet, and the other three groups (SCO, MO, and KO groups) were fed a high-fat diet, in which 7 wt% of the lard in the control diet was replaced with SCO, MO, or KO, respectively. After the mice were fed the experimental diet for 42 days, their serum, liver, and fecal lipid contents as well as their liver mRNA expression levels were evaluated. The SCO group had significantly decreased cholesterol levels in the serum and liver; this decrease was not observed in the MO and KO groups. The cholesterol-lowering effect of SCO was partly mediated by the enhancement of fecal total sterol excretion and expression of liver cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. These results indicate that dietary SCO exhibits serum and liver cholesterol-lowering effects that are not found in dietary MO and KO and can help prevent lifestyle-related diseases.