2019 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 534-538
Tissue engineering is a promising approach to supplement existing treatment strategies for craniofacial bone regeneration. In this study, a type I collagen scaffold made from a recombinant peptide (RCP) with an Arg-Gly-Asp motif was developed, and its effect on regeneration in critical-size mandibular bone defects was evaluated. Additionally, the combined effect of the scaffold and lipid-free dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells was assessed. Briefly, DFAT cells were separated from mature adipocytes by using a ceiling culture technique based on buoyancy. A 3 cm × 4 cm critical-size bone defect was created in the rat mandible, and regeneration was evaluated by using RCP with DFAT cells. Then, cultured DFAT cells and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were seeded onto RCP scaffolds (DFAT/RCP and ASC/RCP) and implanted into the bone defects. Micro-computed tomography imaging at 8 weeks after implantation showed significantly greater bone regeneration in the DFAT/RCP group than in the ASC/RCP and RCP-alone groups. Similarly, histological analysis showed significantly greater bone width in the DFAT/RCP group than in the ASC/RCP and RCP-alone groups. These findings suggest that DFAT/RCP is effective for bone formation in critical-size bone defects and that DFAT cells are a promising source for bone regeneration.