Journal of Oral Science
Online ISSN : 1880-4926
Print ISSN : 1343-4934
ISSN-L : 1343-4934
Volume 61 , Issue 4
December
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
Original
  • Mariko Ishikawa, Yuji Sato, Noboru Kitagawa, Toshiharu Shichita, Yukar ...
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 483-490
    Published: 2019
    Released: November 27, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 21, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of a developed clinical pathway (CP) to determine the sequence of dental treatment in patients who are edentulous and use maxillary and mandibular complete dentures. Sixty-two edentulous patients with maxillary and mandibular complete dentures were randomly allocated either to with (31 subjects) or without (31 subjects) a CP. The main categories of the CP were the examination, instructions, practice, idle time, evaluation sheet, preparation, and other steps. The subcategories were made with respect to the main categories. The participants were categorized as dentists, assistants, or patients. There was no significant difference in mean chair time between with a CP (27.5 min) and without a CP (28.0 min). The CP led to a significant reduction in idle time (waiting in the chair or no treatment) of dentists, assistants, and patients. In contrast, the instances of medical examination, patients’ instructions, and the number of patients reporting improvement of symptoms significantly increased. These results indicated that there is an opportunity to improve the complete denture treatment with a CP.

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  • Masaru Mezawa, Yuto Tsuruya, Mizuho Yamazaki-Takai, Hideki Takai, Yohe ...
    2019 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 491-497
    Published: 2019
    Released: November 27, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: September 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The junctional epithelium and dental enamel adhere because of hemidesmosomes containing laminin 5 and α6β4 integrin, which are important adhesion molecules in the internal basal lamina. Interleukin (IL)-1 is important in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. IL-1β induces bone resorption by activating osteoclasts; however, its effects on adhesion of epithelial cells remain to be clarified. Laminin β3, β4 integrin, and focal adhesion kinase mRNA levels were higher after 1 h and 3 h of stimulation with IL-1β (1 ng/mL), and IL-1β, type I α1, and type IV α1 collagen mRNA levels were higher after 1 h and lower after 3 h of stimulation with IL-1β. After IL-1β stimulation, colocalization of laminin 5 and β4 integrin was increased after 1 h, colocalization of β4 integrin and plectin was increased after 1 h and decreased after 3 h, and colocalization of β4 integrin and type IV collagen was decreased after 3 h. Wound healing assays showed that IL-1β treatment (3 h) delayed wound healing. These results suggest that IL-1β enhances cell adhesion by altering localization of epithelial adhesion molecules.

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  • Satsuki Saito, Mariko Ohtsu, Masatake Asano, Tomohiko Ishigami
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 498-503
    Published: 2019
    Released: November 27, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: September 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Accurate evaluation of the anti-cancer effects of ouabain, a cardiac glycoside, requires an understanding of its signaling pathway. This study examined the effects of ouabain stimulation on spontaneous interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-1α secretion in the HSC3 oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line. IL-8 secretion was reduced and IL-1α secretion was increased in the cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed that these changes were regulated at the transcriptional level. Further analysis revealed that ouabain stimulation induced phosphorylation of activator protein (AP)-1 components (c-Jun and c-Fos) but not nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) components (p65 and p50). A luciferase assay demonstrated that the NF-κB-binding site located at 1 kb upstream of the TATA box in the IL-8 gene contributed to the reduction in IL-8 secretion. Pre-incubation of the cells with BAPTA-AM and L-glutathione increased IL-8 secretion, which indicates that Ca2+ ions and reactive oxygen species are associated with the ouabain-mediated reduction in IL-8 levels. The inhibitory effect of ouabain was attributed to reduced nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit. Taken together, these findings indicate that ouabain exerts opposing effects on transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1.

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  • Shin Ota, Chika Hirakata, Toshiya Endo
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 504-507
    Published: 2019
    Released: November 27, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: September 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of the present study was to assess, in detail, the association between tooth agenesis (TA) and various sagittal skeletal malocclusion groups in a Japanese orthodontic population. One thousand and twenty patients were divided into skeletal Class I, II, or III malocclusion groups using the A point, nasion, and B point angle. TA was identified in each group using panoramic radiographs. Patients with class III malocclusion exhibited a significantly higher prevalence of third molar (M3) agenesis, bilateral and overall agenesis of the maxillary M3s than those patients with a class II malocclusion. Those with a Class II malocclusion demonstrated a significantly lower prevalence of overall agenesis of the mandibular M3s than those with class I or III malocclusions. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of agenesis of teeth other than the M3s between the skeletal malocclusion groups. In each group, there was significantly more M3 agenesis present in the maxilla than in the mandible, and agenesis of the incisors and second premolars was found more often in the mandible than in the maxilla. Sagittal jaw relationships were significantly associated with M3 agenesis but were not associated with agenesis of the maxillary and mandibular incisors and second premolars.

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  • Kentaro Igarashi, Yutaka Watanabe, Hisashi Kawai, Keiko Motokawa, Kent ...
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 508-511
    Published: 2019
    Released: November 27, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 21, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The relation between occlusal force and general motor ability induced by lower-limb musculature is unclear. To identify indicators of oral and lower-limb muscle weakness, this study examined the relation between masticatory muscle strength and lower limb muscle force in 742 community-dwelling elderly adults (315 men and 427 women, mean age 73.3 ± 5.5 years) living in Itabashi ward, Tokyo. Multiple regression analysis of the relation between occlusal force and knee extension torque, in relation to age and sex, showed a significant correlation between the two variables (r = 0.348, P < 0.001), which indicates that occlusal force is a determinant of knee extension torque. Occlusal force remained significantly correlated with knee extension torque after adjustment for factors known to be related to the latter. In conclusion, chewing function and lower-limb motor function were significantly correlated and thus might be indicators of muscle weakness in elderly adults.

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  • Teinosuke Okamura, Muneaki Tamura, Hisashi Suguro, Mariko Ohtsu, Daisu ...
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 512-515
    Published: 2019
    Released: November 27, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 09, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is widely used as an antimicrobial irrigant; however, it has cytotoxic and neurotoxic effects. For these reasons, development of new, safe irrigants other than NaOCl is long overdue. In the present study, the antimicrobial and noxious effects of acid-electrolyzed functional water (FW) were evaluated and compared with those of NaOCl. Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, or Candida albicans were mixed with each tested solution for 30 s. The mixtures were then plated on brain-heart infusion agar plates, after which colony numbers were counted. Serially diluted acid FW was used to determine the actual chloride concentration (ACC) required for a bactericidal effect. Noxious effects were evaluated by measuring lactate dehydrogenase released from HeLa cells. Acid FW and NaOCl had similar bactericidal effects against all bacterial species but not against C. albicans. An ACC of at least 10 ppm was required in order to ensure effective bacteriocidal activity and induce significant lactate dehydrogenase release. Acid FW-treated HeLa cells exhibited healthy growth, with slight retardation as compared with non-treated cells. Because of its efficient bactericidal, and less noxious, effects on human cells, acid FW may be a useful irrigant for effective root canal treatment.

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  • Yusuke Nakagawa, Masahiro To, Juri Saruta, Yuko Yamamoto, Toshiharu Ya ...
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 516-520
    Published: 2019
    Released: November 27, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 21, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Salivary glands produce various compounds, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which serve as biomarkers of stress-related disorders. Social isolation-induced stress models a form of chronic mild stress that induces neurodegenerative changes in the brain and behavioral alterations. This study employed a rat model to determine whether social isolation stress affects BDNF levels in saliva. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to social isolation stress (1 animal/cage) or control (3-4 animals/cage) groups and reared for 8 weeks. The concentration of BDNF was quantified in specific brain regions, blood, and saliva using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The levels of expression of Bdnf and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) mRNA were quantified using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Behavioral alterations were analyzed using the open-field and elevated plus maze assays. The BDNF concentration was lower in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, blood, and saliva of the stress group than in those of the controls. Trkb expression in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex was decreased by social isolation stress. Moreover, the social isolation stress group showed behavioral deficits in both tests. In conclusion, these findings indicate that social isolation stress may reduce the expression of BDNF protein in blood and saliva, thus providing a potentially valuable biomarker for diagnosis of stress-related disorders.

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  • Yoriyuki Hirano, Makoto Hayashi, Muneaki Tamura, Fumihiko Yoshino, Aya ...
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 521-525
    Published: 2019
    Released: November 27, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 05, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Oral diseases generally have certain bacteria associated with them. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAP), generated at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, incorporates several molecules, including reactive oxygen species, that can inactivate various bacteria including oral pathogens. For this reason, several NTAP devices have been developed to treat oral diseases. Use of noble gases can enhance the bactericidal efficacy of NTAP, but this requires additional gas supply equipment. Therefore, a new NTAP device that employs ambient air as the working gas was developed. The device generates non-thermal atmospheric pressure air plasma. Here, the singlet oxygen (1O2) levels generated, their bactericidal effects on oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Enterococcus faecalis), and the bacterial oxidative stress they imposed were measured. 1O2 generation in phosphatebuffered saline was assessed qualitatively using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, and bactericidal efficacy was evaluated by counting of colony-forming units/mL. Bacterial oxidative stress was determined by measurement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. ESR indicated that the level of 1O2 increased significantly and time-dependently, and was inversely correlated with distance, but the bactericidal effects were correlated only with treatment time (not distance) as H2O2 increased and SOD levels decreased, suggesting that the new device has potential applicability for treatment of oral disease.

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  • Hitomi Suzuki, Koichiro Matsuo, Mieko Okamoto, Haruka Nakata, Hitomi S ...
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 526-528
    Published: 2019
    Released: November 27, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: September 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Perioperative oral care can reduce the risk of postoperative infections. This study examined 1) changes in oral bacteria counts during the perioperative period and 2) differences in bacteria counts in patients with or without endotracheal intubation. 47 patients who visited our hospital dental clinic prior to cardiac valve surgery were prospectively recruited. The number of bacteria on the tongue, tooth surface, and buccal vestibule was measured on the day before and 1, 4, and 7 days after surgery. Oral bacteria counts were statistically compared among time points and between intubation and extubation statuses. The oral bacteria counts on the tooth surface and buccal vestibule significantly increased from the day before surgery to 1 day after surgery, and then decreased from 1 to 4 days after surgery. On the day after surgery, the bacteria counts on the tooth surface and buccal vestibule were significantly higher in the intubated compared with the extubated group. Our findings suggest that the oral bacteria count is elevated just after surgery, especially if the patient has endotracheal intubation, which may increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia. These results highlight the importance of perioperative oral care to prevent postoperative pneumonia.

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  • Junya Aoki, Keiji Shinozuka, Kanako Yamagata, Ryota Nakamura, Takako S ...
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 529-533
    Published: 2019
    Released: November 27, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: September 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study evaluated the effect of maxillary advancement surgery on the size of the pharyngeal airway space (PAS). Lateral cephalometric radiographs were collected for 90 patients (29 men and 61 women; average age, 27.2 ± 8.1 years) before (T1) and 1 year after (T2) maxillary advancement surgery. Horizontal and vertical changes in the maxilla and PAS were measured and classified by distance. The maxilla was advanced horizontally by 2.9 ± 1.7 mm and vertically by 2.7 ± 1.4 mm. Upward maxillary movement of ≥4 mm significantly increased PAS (mean change in PAS, 2.6 mm), and upward maxillary movement significantly decreased the posterior nasal spine to the P-point. Only patients with vertical advancement ≥4 mm and horizontal advancement of 3 mm had significant increases in all three PAS parameters. Although forward maxillary movement is believed to have a large effect on PAS, it is suggest that upward vertical movement is more effective for improving PAS. Both the extent and direction of maxillar movement should be considered. Future studies should use cone-beam computed tomography to evaluate the effect of axial direction and differences in PAS.

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  • Atsushi Tateno, Masatake Asano, Daisuke Akita, Taku Toriumi, Niina Tsu ...
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 534-538
    Published: 2019
    Released: November 27, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 21, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Tissue engineering is a promising approach to supplement existing treatment strategies for craniofacial bone regeneration. In this study, a type I collagen scaffold made from a recombinant peptide (RCP) with an Arg-Gly-Asp motif was developed, and its effect on regeneration in critical-size mandibular bone defects was evaluated. Additionally, the combined effect of the scaffold and lipid-free dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells was assessed. Briefly, DFAT cells were separated from mature adipocytes by using a ceiling culture technique based on buoyancy. A 3 cm × 4 cm critical-size bone defect was created in the rat mandible, and regeneration was evaluated by using RCP with DFAT cells. Then, cultured DFAT cells and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were seeded onto RCP scaffolds (DFAT/RCP and ASC/RCP) and implanted into the bone defects. Micro-computed tomography imaging at 8 weeks after implantation showed significantly greater bone regeneration in the DFAT/RCP group than in the ASC/RCP and RCP-alone groups. Similarly, histological analysis showed significantly greater bone width in the DFAT/RCP group than in the ASC/RCP and RCP-alone groups. These findings suggest that DFAT/RCP is effective for bone formation in critical-size bone defects and that DFAT cells are a promising source for bone regeneration.

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  • Dora Zulema R. Díaz, Cristina Emöke E. Müller, Maria Beatriz D. Gavião
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 539-543
    Published: 2019
    Released: November 27, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 05, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The present study’s aim was to compare temporomandibular joint (TMJ) images for individuals with and without temporomandibular disorder (TMD) using high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS). The distance between the lateral-most point of the articular capsule and the lateral-most point of the mandibular condyle (lateral capsule-mandibular condyle distance) was determined to confirm the clinical diagnosis according to the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD). The sample group comprised 17 women and 15 men, aged 19-39 years, distributed into TMD (n = 20) and Asymptomatic (n = 12) groups. The evaluations were in closed- and open-mouth positions. The lateral capsule-mandibular condyle distance was measured in both positions. The articular surface of the condyle and the articular capsule were visualized as hyperechoic structures, and the articular disk was visualized as a central, hyperechogenic area surrounded by a hypoechoic linear image. Morphological changes were observed in some TMD group participants, including joint effusion (hypoechogenic area), condylar erosions (increased hyperechoic area), and condylar surface irregularities. The lateral capsule-mandibular condyle distance did not differ between sides or groups among participants with intra-articular disorders with or without pain (P > 0.05). In conclusion, HRUS allowed visualization of the TMJ structures, but did not allow confirmation of clinical diagnosis by DC/TMD.

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  • Yoshiaki Nomura, Tomoaki Matsuyama, Kakuhiro Fukai, Ayako Okada, Mitsu ...
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 544-548
    Published: 2019
    Released: November 27, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: September 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Screening is a fundamental strategy for early detection, treatment, and prevention of progression of oral disease and those at high risk for oral disease. While numerous screening tools exist, questionnaires, and saliva tests are often suitable for screening. The questionnaire based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED model was developed, validated, and elucidated on the structural interrelationship between these two methods. In the current investigation, 311 adults had this questionnaire and saliva testing administered simultaneously during an occupational health checkup. The questionnaire was validated by classical test theory, item response theory, and path analysis. Through structural equation modeling, it was found that self-care guidance may be an important role of the family dentist. In addition, self-awareness of oral symptoms was significantly related to saliva test results. However, self-administered questionnaires and saliva tests together may provide more information than either of them alone for the detection, treatment, and prevention of progression of oral disease. Thus, simultaneous application of self-administered questionnaires and saliva tests is recommended during oral health checkups for adults.

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  • Kabun Yamauchi, Akimasa Tsujimoto, Carlos A. Jurado, Yusuke Shimatani, ...
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 549-553
    Published: 2019
    Released: November 27, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 21, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this study, dentin bond fatigue resistance and interfacial science characteristics of universal adhesives through etch-and-rinse and self-etch modes were investigated. Resin composite was bonded to human dentin with four universal adhesives, namely, Adhese Universal, All-Bond Universal, G-Premio Bond, and Scotchbond Universal Adhesive. The initial bond strengths, bond fatigue strengths, and interfacial science characteristics of the universal adhesives with dentin through etch-and-rinse and self-etch modes were determined. Bond fatigue resistance (initial bond strength and bond fatigue strength) of universal adhesives in etch-and-rinse mode showed no significant difference in contrast to that in self-etch mode and was material-dependent regardless of the etching mode. Although phosphoric acid conditioning of dentin did not have a strong impact on the bond fatigue resistance, surface free energy and parameters of dentin were significantly decreased by etching and by application of universal adhesives regardless of etching mode. Changes in γS and γSh for when universal adhesive was applied to etched and ground dentin were significantly different depending on the adhesive. The results suggest that bonding performance of universal adhesives was effective in both etching modes; however, bonding mechanisms may be different for each.

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  • Çağla Gül Gürkan, Gonca Çayır Keleș, Sevda Kurt, Alper Çiftçi, Bülent ...
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 554-557
    Published: 2019
    Released: November 27, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 05, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of administered Paeoniflorin (Pae) on periodontal tissues within an experimental periodontitis model. Forty male Wistar rats were used in this study and experimental periodontitis was created in all rats except in the control group (n = 10, first group). In the periodontitis group, experimental periodontitis was created but no other application was performed (n = 10, second group). In the other groups created experimental periodontitis, systemic Pae (n = 10, third group) or saline (n = 10, fourth group) was applied. A biochemical analysis of the gingival vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels and a histomorphometric analysis (measurements of the area of alveolar bone, alveolar bone resorption, and attachment loss) were performed. In the Pae group, the area of the alveolar bone was increased, while alveolar bone resorption and attachment loss decreased. Gingival VEGF levels increased in all groups that created experimental periodontitis and the greatest increase seen in the Pae group. Histomorphometric and biochemical analyses in this study suggest that Pae has a curative effect on periodontal tissues. However, additional studies are needed to confirm these results.

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Short communication
  • Kazumichi Yonenaga, Yujiro Iwanabe, Chihiro Masaki, Ryuji Hosokawa, Yo ...
    Type: Short communication
    2019 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 558-559
    Published: 2019
    Released: November 27, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 05, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    To contribute to future dental healthcare policies, this study compiled data on hospital expenses and follow-ups conducted after a hospital dentistry department was established. In addition, the management status and reports on the utility and challenges of establishing a dentistry department were analyzed. The dentistry department was established through fund raising and inaugurated in May 2009. The depreciation period was set at 7 years, and income and expenditure during the 7 years 8 months after opening were compiled. In total, 17.22 million yen was needed for the dentistry department. The average income from dental care was 21.59 million yen per year, and expenditure amounted to 21.54 million yen per year. The findings indicated that a general dentist able to systemically manage patients was essential in a chronic-care hospital. Moreover, the present findings indicate that if general dentistry consultations were performed without excessive investments, after adjusting for personnel expenses, such an initiative would neither yield considerable income nor produce a substantial deficit. Finally, it is imperative to develop staff who are familiar with the costs and management of hospital dentistry and to increase medical fees for consultations with elderly patients.

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