2017 Volume 54 Issue 2 Pages 179-184
The study was carried out in 48 poultry flocks to elucidate the roles of various complicating pathogens involved along with Newcastle disease (ND)/ low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) outbreaks. Necropsy was conducted and samples were collected for the isolation of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Influenza A virus, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), pathogenic bacteria; molecular detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), fowl adeno virus (FAV), chicken anaemia virus (CAV), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). The isolation results confirmed that 18/48 flocks (37%) were positive for the presence of hemagglutinating agents. Out of 18 hemagglutination (HA) positive flocks, 11 flocks (61%) were positive for both avian influenza virus (AIV) and NDV; 4 flocks (22%) were positive for NDV; and 3 flocks (17%) were positive for AIV. Sequence analysis of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of AIV revealed that all were belonging to LPAI-H9N2 subtype. Sequence analysis of F gene of NDV revealed that they belong to virulent type. The PCR results confirmed the presence of three to seven etiological agents (CAV, FAV, ILTV, MG, MS and avian pathogenic E. coli along with LPAI/NDV from all the 18 HA-positive flocks. The detection rate of triple, quadruple, quintuple, sextuple and sevenfold infections was 17% (3 flocks), 28% (5 flocks), 11%, (2 flocks) 28% (5 flocks) and 17% (3 flocks), respectively. In conclusion, the disease complex involved more than one pathogen, primarily resulting from the interplay between LPAI-H9N2 and NDV; subsequently this could be exacerbated by co-infection with other agents which may cause exacerbated outbreaks that may otherwise go undetected in field.