2004 Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 57-64
This study measured foot movements, especially those of the longitudinal arch and the calcaneus, in two load conditions, using simple radiography. For both load conditions, the subject stood on one leg. In one case, the load of the subject's weight was borne by the entire sole of the foot and in the other the load was borne only by the ball of the foot (forefoot). Measurements of longitudinal arch height were taken using the "Yokokura" method. These were used to determine reference values for the position of standing on one leg and examine changes from the one condition to the other in the relationship of longitudinal arch height to motion of the calcaneus. The subjects were 15 male athletes and 12 female athletes, and 12 male non-athletes and 12 female non-athletes. Results: The female non-athlete group had significantly lower reference values of medial longitudinal arch height while standing on one leg than did the male non-athlete group. When the load was applied to the ball of the foot, changes in the medial longitudinal arch height were significantly less among the members of the female non-athlete group than among the members of the other three groups. There were deviations of the calcaneus into the varus direction in many cases. The feet of all the subjects (a total of 102 feet) revealed that there was a positive correlation between the lowering of longitudinal arch height and deviation of the calcaneus at points C, N, and L along the medial longitudinal arch and point f along the lateral longitudinal arch. Retention of the longitudinal arch of the foot seemed to be related to the joint laxity, which differed between males and females, and muscle functions (muscular strength and coordination) which are expected to improve with training.