Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Online ISSN : 2187-5626
Print ISSN : 0915-5287
ISSN-L : 0915-5287
Volume 16 , Issue 1
Showing 1-11 articles out of 11 articles from the selected issue
Original
  • Chung-Hwi Yi, So-Yeon Park, Sang-Heon Lee
    2004 Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 1-5
    Published: 2004
    Released: July 16, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    There is a risk of injury to the knee during landing. The kinematics involved in different landing strategies may be related to the occurrence of trauma. Several sources suggest that the angle of knee extension on touchdown and impact with the ground determines the magnitude of the impact force and, indirectly, knee loading. This study compared the initial knee angle, maximum knee flexion angle, and angular velocity at the instant of impact on drop-landings between healthy men and women. In this study, 48 participants (25 male, 23 female) dropped from a height of 40 cm onto their right leg. The CMS-HS measuring system was used to analyze the kinematic data. There was no significant difference in the mean knee flexion angle at landing between the two groups. However, the range of knee flexion on landing (43.64 ± 4.63° in men, 37.40 ± 6.23 ° in women) and the angular velocity (0.25 ± 0.04 °/sec for men, 0.23 ± 0.04°/sec for women) differed significantly (p<0.05). Women land with a straighter knee than men and this might increase the likelihood of a knee injury.
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  • Hiroshi Maruoka, Kamon Imai, Akihito Kubota, Kazuhisa Inoue, Takayuki ...
    2004 Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 7-14
    Published: 2004
    Released: July 16, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The relation between VE-VCO2 slope and left ventricular function was examined in 38 patients (37 male and 1 female; mean age 55.1 ± 7.3 years) with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Left ventricular function was measured with electrocardiogram gated single photon emission computed tomography in the acute phase (4.0 ± 2.4 days after onset) and the chronic phase (170.7 ± 57.4 days after onset). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) was performed 33.9 ± 13.5 days after the onset of AMI for expiration gas analysis. In the chronic phase, the VE-VCO2 slope showed significant correlation with the end-diastolic volume (r=0.52; p<0.001), end-systolic volume (r=0.46; p<0.004) and ejection fraction (r=-0.34; p<0.03). Therefore, the left ventricular function in the chronic phase could be estimated by the VE-VCO2 slope. The VE-VCO2 slope of the remodeling (RM) group was significantly higher than that of the non-RM group (p<0.02). There was no significant difference between the Peak VO2 values of the two groups. Thus, the VE-VCO2 slope can be used to estimate the left ventricular function and to predict RM.
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  • Dorothy Morala, Taizo Shiomi
    2004 Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 15-20
    Published: 2004
    Released: July 16, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Physical Performance Test (PPT) is a performance-based measurement that correlates well with degree of disability, loss of independence, and early mortality. However, it has not been introduced in Japan. The purpose of the present study was to assess the reliability and validity of PPT for the Japanese elderly people. Thirty-nine Japanese elderly community-dwellers with a mean age of 82.5 participated in this study. We revised some parts of the original version of the PPT (JPPT). Barthel Index (BI), Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology of Index of Competence (TMIG-index of competence), Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) and Japanese-version PPT (JPPT) were simultaneously conducted. Test-retest and inter-rater reliability was assessed for JPPT. Intraclass correlation coefficient for interrater reliability of JPPT was greater than 0.95. Intraclass correlation coefficients for test-retest reliability were 0.85 and above. JPPT was significantly correlated with TMIG-index of competence (r=0.667, p<0.01) and BI (r=0.581, p<0.01) but was less significantly correlated with MMSE (r=0.319, p<0.05). JPPT has a good to high degree of reliability and validity, reflects physical, mental and social functional domain, and appears acceptable and meaningful to examiners and Japanese elderly people.
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  • Jagannath Sharma, Colin White, Hideaki Senjyu
    2004 Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 21-26
    Published: 2004
    Released: July 16, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combine warm-up and stretching on hamstring flexibility with a healthy 28 years old male as a subject. A single case design, consisting of a baseline phase (A) and intervention phase (B), was used. Phase A began with daily measurement of the right hip flexion range using a goniometer during a passive straight leg raise (SLR), performing three measurements on the same session a day for 7 consecutive days. In the phase B the subject jogged on the spot for 3 minutes and performed three consecutive 30 second stretches of the right hamstring, immediately before daily measurement for 7 days. Results showed there was significant difference in hamstring flexibility between two phases. It was concluded that a combined warm-up and stretching regime is an effective way in increasing hamstring flexibility.
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  • Tetsuo Suyama, Shusuke Kusano, Naoyuki Oi, Mitsuru Yamamoto, Yoshie Ta ...
    2004 Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 27-31
    Published: 2004
    Released: July 16, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In 1997, the members of Japan Stroke Society presented the Japan Stroke Scale (JSS) for the acute stage, and in 2000 the Japan Stroke Scale of Motor (JSS-M) with the items of motor system required for the independence of activities of daily living (ADL). JSS-M consists of eight major items. We classified subjects with nine points or less into group A, with 10-19 points into group B and with 20 points or more into group C according to JSS scores for the acute stage at the baseline. In JSS scores, higher scores means more intense severity of disability. Subjects were 46 cases with cerebral hemorrhage and 63 cases with cerebral infarction, 109 cases in total. Age: cases with cerebral hemorrhage had a mean age of 58.3 ± 14.7, while those with cerebral infarction had a mean age of 69.2 ± 11.0: males 67, and females 42. The rate of improvement of cerebral hemorrhage was higher than that of cerebral infarction in groups A and B. The rate of improvement was the highest in Gait in groups A and B, and Dysphagia and Complex Movement followed in order after that; in group B the rate of improvement of Hand and Arm followed after Complex Movement. The mean rate of improvement of JSS was 98% in group A, 66.7% in group B, and 57.8% in group C. JSS-M is a very useful evaluation, but the study of evaluation methods of trunk and upper limb function required.
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  • Tadashi Matsuzawa, Tsutomu Meguro, Katsuhiko Eguchi, Tsugio Yoshida, T ...
    2004 Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 33-37
    Published: 2004
    Released: July 16, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in muscle blood flow caused by ultrasound stimulation. Although many studies have been done on the thermal effects of ultrasound therapy and some reports of its effects on muscle blood flow (MBF), the mechanism of the effects on MBF remains to be elucidated. In the present study, using laser Doppler flowmetry, we observed the responses of muscle blood volume (MBV) in the hind-limb evoked by ultrasound stimulation and investigated its neural mechanism in anesthetized rats. The experiments were performed on 7 adult male Wistar rats, which were anesthetized and artificially ventilated. Hind-limbs of the rats were stimulated by continuous wave ultrasound at l or 3 MHz with l or 2 W/cm2 power per 60 seconds. The muscle blood volume was measured with a laser Doppler flow meter using a needle type probe inserted in the bicep femoris. The contribution of sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerves on the responses of MBV evoked by the ultrasound stimulation was investigated with a pharmacological blockade by administrating of a sympathetic alpha blocker (phentramine; 1 mg/kg, iv.). During stimulation at l MHz with 2 W/cm2 power, MBV decreased by a mean of 8% compared with the pre-stimulation control level and the change was statistically significant (p<0.05). After the termination of the stimulation, the lowered MBV response recovered to its control level or even increased in some cases. Pre-administration of sympathetic α-blocker abolished the lowered response in MBV.
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  • Noriaki Maeda, Masahito Murakami, Kentarou Takahashi, Akiyo Hosokawa, ...
    2004 Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 39-42
    Published: 2004
    Released: July 16, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between daily physical activity and physical fitness in 10 type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients without cardiovascular complications, aged 43-72 years (body mass index [BMI], 23.7 ± 2.2 kg/m2). The pedometric measurement was made using a calorie counter (CAL-D) in daily life at home, and was compared with oxygen uptake (VO2) and work load with gas analysis obtained using a bicycle ergometer. The mean number of gait steps recorded with CAL-D, and energy expenditure in exercise per day were 8,202 ± 1,966 steps/day and 231 ± 70 kcal/day respectively. The mean number of gait steps per day was positively correlated with VO2 (r=0.44, p<0.05). These results suggest that gait performance of daily physical activity at home is generally related with exercise endurance in DM patients.
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  • Harutoshi Sakakima
    2004 Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 43-48
    Published: 2004
    Released: July 16, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To investigate the effects of low and high frequency treadmill running on immobilization-induced soleus muscle atrophy and ankle joint limitation, we performed morphological and histochemical analyses. Fifteen 8-week-old female Wistar rats (weight: 195.1 ± 6.2 g) were used in this study. After 2 weeks immobilization, rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups for 6 weeks exercise, such as free cage activity for the free remobilization (FR) group, once-a-week treadmill running {low frequency running program (LFR group)}, six times a week running {high frequency running program (HFR group)}. Two weeks of immobilization significantly reduced the soleus muscle wet weight, type I and II fiber cross-sectional areas, and range of ankle joint movement, and it increased the type II fiber ratios compared with the contralateral side. Some of these changes were not corrected by free remobilization, whereas in the LFR and HFR groups the changes were clearly restored toward normal levels, the effect being more beneficial in the HFR group for muscle recovery. In addition, LFR and HFR groups had improved range of ankle joint contracture in comparison with the FR group. These findings indicate that immobilization-induced muscle fiber histochemical alterations and the decrease of range of ankle motion in rats, to a great extent, is a reversible phenomena, especially if remobilization is intensified by physical exercise. High frequency running is more beneficial for recovery of the immobilization-induced muscle atrophy and joint contracture than no running or low frequency running.
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  • Shimpachiro Ogiwara, Yoko Ikezawa
    2004 Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 49-55
    Published: 2004
    Released: July 16, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    PURPOSE: To demonstrate attitudes of health science students towards clients with cancer (ATC). The objective was three-fold: 1) to describe health science students' ATC, 2) to compare ATC amongst health science students according to their professional discipline, academic seniority and gender, 3) to note whether their ATC differed according to: a) their experience with cancer clients during clinical placement; and/or b) their acquired perception through their class-work of the need for psychological support for cancer clients. RELEVANCE: To show how important a student's prior classroom instruction and positive experience in clinical placement is to the establishment of an empathic attitude to clients with cancer. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 860 students participated from five professional disciplines of the School of Health Sciences at the University of Kanazawa, Japan. Five hundred and sixty-eight responded appropriately with the rate of response being 66 per cent. METHOD: The ATC scale consisted of 30 statements with six responses (+3, +2, +1, -1, -2, -3) for each statement. Two additional questions were provided on the questionnaire: a) whether or not a need for psychological support for such clients was perceived necessary as was instructed through their class-work; and b) students' experience with cancer clients during clinical placements. ANALYSIS: Descriptive analysis of student demographics, the Fisher's PLSD post-hoc test followed by multiple comparisons and the Mann-Whitney U test to determine any statistically significant difference in the ATC scores. RESULTS: Student nurses scored significantly high on the ATC scale, followed by laboratory science, physiotherapy, radiological technology and occupational therapy students. It was also found that all fourth year students scored significantly high on the ATC scale. The student nurses showed that they dealt with significantly large numbers of cancer clients during their clinical placements. The students who were affirmative to the two additional questions were found to have significantly higher ATC scores than those who were negative. CONCLUSION: Senior students' ATC was found to be more positive. Student nurses' approach to cancer clients was on a more person-to-person basis. Having experience alone with cancer clients was not sufficient to promote a positive ATC, but additional structured classroom instruction was found to play a necessary role in ATC.
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  • Masashi Hashimoto, Honwen Cheng, Kenji Hirohashi
    2004 Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 57-64
    Published: 2004
    Released: July 16, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study measured foot movements, especially those of the longitudinal arch and the calcaneus, in two load conditions, using simple radiography. For both load conditions, the subject stood on one leg. In one case, the load of the subject's weight was borne by the entire sole of the foot and in the other the load was borne only by the ball of the foot (forefoot). Measurements of longitudinal arch height were taken using the "Yokokura" method. These were used to determine reference values for the position of standing on one leg and examine changes from the one condition to the other in the relationship of longitudinal arch height to motion of the calcaneus. The subjects were 15 male athletes and 12 female athletes, and 12 male non-athletes and 12 female non-athletes. Results: The female non-athlete group had significantly lower reference values of medial longitudinal arch height while standing on one leg than did the male non-athlete group. When the load was applied to the ball of the foot, changes in the medial longitudinal arch height were significantly less among the members of the female non-athlete group than among the members of the other three groups. There were deviations of the calcaneus into the varus direction in many cases. The feet of all the subjects (a total of 102 feet) revealed that there was a positive correlation between the lowering of longitudinal arch height and deviation of the calcaneus at points C, N, and L along the medial longitudinal arch and point f along the lateral longitudinal arch. Retention of the longitudinal arch of the foot seemed to be related to the joint laxity, which differed between males and females, and muscle functions (muscular strength and coordination) which are expected to improve with training.
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  • Yasushi Miyazaki, Akiko Okumiya
    2004 Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 65-71
    Published: 2004
    Released: July 16, 2004
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To predict obesity in adults with Down syndrome, we investigated the correlation between age and change in BMI (Body Mass Index), as well as between age and change in blood pressure using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analysis. We calculated BMI during the various age stages of 34 subjects (24 males and 10 females) from records of height, weight, and blood pressure made during regular health checkups. The average BMI of both males and females was seen to increase linearly in the teens and 20s. No male subjects had a BMI over 25 in the early teenage years, but five of 18 subjects (28%) in the late teenage years, 10 of 24 subjects (42%) in the early 20s and 11 of 24 subjects (46%) in the late 20s had a BMI of over 25. On the other hand, in the 10 females, one of eight subjects (13%) in the late teens, three of ten subjects (30%) in the early 20s, and four of ten subjects (40%) in the late 20s had a BMI of over 25. Although both SBP and DBP were lower than the Japanese average, no correlation was found in our study between increased BMI and blood pressure in subjects in their 20s. Obesity in people with Down syndrome tends to increase from the late teens to the twenties. We hypothesize that there is a marked trend from the twenties and suggest that tracing BMI over the early adult years is an important factor for predicting obesity in individuals with Down syndrome.
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