Journal of Serviceology
Online ISSN : 2435-5771
Original Paper
FNS Model of Service as Value Co-creation in Design Processes
Hideyuki NakashimaHaruyuki FujiiMasaki Suwa
Author information

2016 Volume 1 Issue 1 Pages 6-14


We formalize a design process as a synthesis. One important phase of the process is utilization of the designed object, either it is concrete or abstract. This phase is a service provision.

We define “X service” as a provision and utilization of X, where X is something or some system. Value co- creation by the provider and the user through use has been discussed in the society of Serviceology. We claim that the concept of co-creation also applies to design.

We have been working on formalizing the process of design and synthesis, or constructive science, as FNS diagram. It is an infinite loop of generation, interaction (of the system) with the environment, analysis and scripting (and then back to generation). This loop is infinite in the sense that to design is never ending activity of making and improving a certain type of artifacts recursively towards a preferable situation even though each artifact has its lifetime. Service in its narrow sense corresponds to generation and interaction phase where a generated system is actually put into use. Service in its wider sense corresponds to the whole loop.

When we take the definition of “design” to its widest meaning, service becomes an important part of a design process. Provision and utilization of designed system forms a twin FNS loops, one for the provider and the other for the user.

Information technology (IT) plays an important role when we design an innovative service system. As an example, we report our design and implementation of Smart Access Vehicle System in Hakodate.

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© 2016 Society for Serviceology
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