27 巻 (2014) 4 号 p. 528-540
Atmospheric-pressure plasma (AP plasma) treatment is a low-temperature plasma treatment, and can create super-hydrophilicity on a titanium surface by decomposing hydrocarbon and introducing the hydroxyl group. AP plasma has unique features, including that this treatment can be performed while being exposed to the air, and create super-hydrophilicity on a titanium surface within an extremely short time due to its high energy compared to UV treatment. Accordingly, this treatment is expected to be used for clinical applications. This study aimed to investigate the effect of AP plasma treatment on surface properties of commercial titanium implants that have different surface morphology and physicochemistry, and to verify the availability of this treatment for clinical use.
The surfaces of 17 commercially available titanium implants were observed using an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope, and were analyzed by Xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These implants were subjected to AP plasma treatment and evaluated the change in surface chemical compositions including carbon contents and surface wettability with contact angle measurements. The AP plasma treatment was carried out for 5 s along the sides of the implants that were retained at a location 10 mm from the exhaust nozzle of AP plasma.
The surfaces of the 17 commercial implants have various surface morphologies and chemical compositions, and were classified into machining with lathe, blast＋ acid etching (SLA), SLA＋ hydrophilization, spark anodic-oxidation and HA/Blast treatment under microscopic observation, XPS analyses and contact angle measurement.
The carbon contents were decreased with AP plasma treatment. In addition, the surfaces of commercial implants with all classifications reach super-hydrophilicity that has almost zero contact angles by AP plasma treatment.
In conclusion, the results in the present study showed that the AP plasma treatment can create super-hydro-philicity on almost all the commercial implants within an extremely short time, such as 5 s, while being exposed to air, and may be utilized in the operating room immediately prior to implant placement under atmospheric conditions.