The Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Online ISSN : 1880-3989
Print ISSN : 0388-1350
ISSN-L : 0388-1350
Original Article
Effect of fetal exposure to bisphenol A on brain mediated by X-chromosome inactivation
Takayuki KumamotoShigeru Oshio
Author information

2013 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 485-494


Recent studies have reported that bisphenol A (BPA) influences brain development in fetal exposure to mice. The X-chromosome codes many neurodevelopment-related genes leading to abnormal development, such as mental retardation and intellectual deficiency. For females, most of expressions of X-linked genes are regulated by X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), which occurs during fetal period, and this mechanism is regulated by Xist and its antisense, Tsix. To clarify the possibility of X-mediated effect as a mechanism of neurodevelopmental disorders by BPA, pregnant ICR mice were orally administered 0.02 or 50 mg/kg of BPA on gestational days 6 and 15. Postnatally at days 2, 4 and weeks 3 and 7, mRNA expression of XCI-regulating factors (Xist and Tsix), X-linked neurodevelopment-related genes (Fmr1, Gdi1, Nlgn3, Pak3 and Ophn1), and sexual differentiation-related genes (ERα, ERβ and AR) were examined in cerebrums of female pups. Anogenital distance (AGD) and serum estradiol were also examined. In the 50 mg/kg exposed-group, reduced Xist, Fmr1, Gdi1, Nlgn3, and Pak3 and increased Tsix were observed simultaneously. Moderately reduced Xist, Gdi1, Nlgn3 and Pak3 were observed at 0.02 mg/kg BPA. ERα, ERβ and AR expression changes, shortened AGDs and reduced estradiol levels were observed in each exposure group. Fetal exposure to BPA changed expression of XCI-regulating factors and may alter the expression levels of X-linked neurodevelopment-related genes disrupting the XCI mechanism and function. This X-mediated effect is considered one of the mechanisms of various BPA-induced neurodevelopmental disorders.

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© 2013 The Japanese Society of Toxicology
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