2017 Volume 42 Issue 3 Pages 267-280
Herein, we report on the joint toxicity of four fluoroquinolones and two tetracyclines (β-diketone antibiotics-DKAs) to zebrafish based on a series of toxicological endpoints and histopathological observations. A positive dose-dependence was observed in DKA-exposure groups with a 72-hpf EC50 of 130.3 mg/L for hatching rate, 120-hpf LC50 of 149.8 mg/L, and 120-hpf EC50 of 135.1 mg/L for malformation rate. When zebrafish at 60 dpf were exposed to a series of DKA concentrations (45, 60 and 90 mg/L) for 7, 14 and 21 days, creatine kinase and AChE activities were significantly induced, and intracellular malondialdehyde increased in all treatments except for the 45 mg/L treatment. The transcription levels of AHRRa from livers were significantly (p < 0.05) up-regulated in all treatments after two months of DKA exposure. CKma expression from skeletal muscle was significantly down-regulated in the 90 mg/L treatment. A remarkable down-regulation of CYP3A65 was observed in the 60 mg/L treatment. DKA exposure resulted in severe tissue damage including mitochondria swelling, reduction of mitochondrial cristae, deepening of mitochondrial cristae bands, and decreasing and even disappearance of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Total sperm motility was decreased by ca. 30% due to DKA exposure. These results provide important information for toxicity and health risks due to mixed DKA exposure in aquatic environments.