1999 Volume 61 Issue 10 Pages 1147-1152
Thirteen anomalous calves with clefts of the face were morphologically examined, and craniofacial skeletons were studied in detail. According to the type and site of the cleft, four groups could be distinguished: median cleft lip and jaw (CLJ); median cleft lip, jaw, and palate (CLJP); lateral CLJ; and cleft palate (CP), including unilateral and bilateral type. Craniofacial skeletal abnormalities were observed in several bones at the roof, wall, and floor of the nasal cavity and at the boundary portion between the nasal and cranial cavities. Fissure formation at the cranial sutures, partial absence of the nasal process of the incisive bone, and opening of the bony palate were characteristic changes in median CLJ and CLJP, lateral CLJ, and CP, respectively. Furthermore, various associated changes were recognized in the median and paramedian skeletal elements of the face and other organs. The morphological changes of craniofacial skeletons with various types of clefts of the face depended on the site and degree of the cleft formation and reflected developmental errors of the facial embryonic segments. These changes would suggest disorders of the correlated development of facial processes and of other fetal organs of the face. For these conditions, etiologically hereditary cases were negative.