2018 Volume 80 Issue 8 Pages 1259-1265
This study aims to determine the microbiological profile and risk factors associated with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in canine severe corneal ulcers. Thirty-two corneal and conjunctival swabs were collected from dogs with diagnosed severe corneal ulcers that presented to Prasu-Arthorn veterinary teaching hospital in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand from June 2015 to June 2016. Microorganisms were identified by means of genotypic and phenotypic approaches. Of 32 ulcers sampled, 26 (81.3%) yielded culturable microorganisms with 24 bacterial isolates and 7 fungal isolates. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus spp. (45.8%, 11/24) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.8%, 5/24). Out of 11 staphylococcal isolates identified, 10 carried the mecA gene providing methicillin resistance. The extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) encoding genes blaCTX-M and blaVEB-1 were found in an Acinetobacter lwoffii isolate, and blaSHV was found in a P. aeruginosa isolate. Based on the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoint criteria, minimum inhibitory concentrations values showed that all bacteria, except for staphylococci, were susceptible to current ophthalmic antibiotics. More than 50% of staphylococci were resistant to all generations of fluoroquinolones and fusidic acid. Chloramphenicol was highly active against staphylococci (81.3% susceptible). The width (P=0.02) and the depth (P=0.04) of ulcers predicted greater risk of yielding resistant bacteria. The identification of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria prompts practitioners to be prudent when choosing ophthalmic antibiotics for severe corneal ulcers.