2020 Volume 82 Issue 2 Pages 177-183
Hydrolyzed proteins are often prescribed for dogs with food hypersensitivity in food elimination programs. However, the potential of these diets to stimulate lymphocyte-mediated hypersensitivity is currently unknown. In this study, two commercially available hydrolyzed diets for dogs, D-1 (Aminopeptide Formula Dry, Royal Canin Japon, Tokyo, Japan), and D-2 (Canine z/d Ultra Dry, Hill’s-Colgate (Japan) Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), were analyzed to identify residual proteins or peptides, as well as activated helper T-lymphocyte reactions in dogs with suspected food hypersensitivity. Proteins and peptides with molecular weights >1 kDa (majority 1.5–3.5 kDa) were detected in both diet extracts with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and size exclusion chromatography. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC’s) from 316 dogs with suspected food allergies were cultured with hydrolyzed diet extracts, flow cytometry analysis revealed detectable levels of CD25low helper T-lymphocytes stimulated by D-1 and D-2 in 91 of 316, (28.8%), and 75 of 316 (23.7%) samples, respectively. These data indicated that the extracts contained proteins or peptides large enough to activate the lymphocytes. The percentages of CD25low helper T-lymphocytes stimulated by D-1 and D-2 extracts increased to 38.7% and 29.6%, respectively, in 186 of the original 316 samples (186/316, 58.9%), also reactive to poultry-related antigens. Thus, both poultry-related antigens, and D-1 and D-2 diet extracts may activate helper T-lymphocytes. These results demonstrate that hydrolyzed diets may contain proteins that stimulate helper T-lymphocytes, and may not be effective for treating all dogs with food hypersensitivity.