2022 Volume 84 Issue 4 Pages 585-592
Neonicotinoid pesticides (NNs) cause behavioral abnormalities in mammals, raising concerns about their effects on neural circuit activity. We herein examined the neurological effects of the NN clothianidin (CLO) by in vivo Ca2+ imaging using two-photon microscopy. Mice were fed the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) dose of CLO for 2 weeks and their neuronal activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) was observed weekly for 2 weeks. CLO exposure caused a sustained influx of Ca2+ in neurons in the S1 2/3 layers, indicating hyperactivation of neurons. In addition, microarray gene expression analysis suggested the induction of neuroinflammation and changes in synaptic activity. These results demonstrate that exposure to the NOAEL dose of CLO can overactivate neurons and disrupt neuronal homeostasis.