Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was isolated in Vero cell cultures from the small intestine of a piglet experimentally infected with porcine coronavirus 83P-5, that had been isolated during outbreaks of porcine acute diarrhea and passaged in piglets. The isolation of the PEDV was successful only in Vero cells maintained in the maintenance medium (MM) containing trypsin. Infected Vero cell cultures exhibited CPE characterized by cell-fusion and syncytial formation, as well as cytoplasmic fluorescence when examined by the indirect immunofluorescent test using rabbit anti-83P-5 virus serum. The isolate was adapted to serial propagation in Vero cell cultures by adding trypsin to MM. Vero cell-adapted PEDV was successfully propagated in the MA104, CPK and ESK cell lines in the presence of trypsin in MM. Vero cell-adapted PEDV had morphologic and physicochemical characteristics similar to those of other members of the coronaviridae. The isolate differed serologically from porcine transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) and porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis viruses, and no antigenic relationship between the isolate and TGE virus could be detected by the indirect immunofluorescent test. Attempts to isolate PEDV in 6 types of primary fetal pig cell cultures and 6 of 10 established cell lines resulted in the failure, probably because these cells were damaged by the action of trypsin.
The Japanese Society of Veterinary Science