Many developing countries are facing nutrition transition or rapid change in dietary intake and physical activity, which are caused by lifestyle transformations resulting from rapid urbanization and modernization. Consequently, these countries are experiencing increasing rates of overweight and obesity while undernutrition remains prevalent. This is often referred to as the double burden of malnutrition. In Indonesia, the fourth most populous country in the world, the prevalence of overnutrition is growing rapidly. According to the latest health survey, 33% of adult women in the country are categorized as overweight or obese.
The present report describes the changes in physical growth and nutrition of children in Indonesia since 1990, a period of rapid socioeconomic change, using national statistics and data of a field survey of school-aged children in a rural village of West Java in 2001 and 2015. The survey included anthropometric measurements, food consumption surveys, and questionnaires on socioeconomic status.
The results showed increased height and weight and large variation in weight status (BMIZ), especially among boys, from 2001 to 2015. These findings were deemed to be mostly owing to socioeconomic changes, including in dietary habits. The prevalence of overweight/obese increased from 2.4% in 2001 to 13.7% in 2015, which was similar to the national trend.