1986 年 1986 巻 83 号 p. 107-125,L12
An important and conspicuous characteristic of postwar developments in the United States is a marked and steady increase in military expenditures, which has led to the emergence of the ‘national security state.’ In the wake of these developments the ‘military-industrial complex’ has grown powerful enough to perpetuate the political and social structures justifying huge military spending of 231 billion dollars in fiscal year 1984. It has also attained immense economic benefits from these expenditures. The ‘military-industrial complex’ and its supporters have developed a unique national security ideology which is characterized by an emphasis on the primacy of the national security of the United States and the subsequent stress on the crucial importance of military science and technology. They have argued that U. S. national security is best promoted by securing superiority in military technology. Their military doctrine is based upon deterrence which they argue is maintained by possessing superior military power, nuclear and conventional. They have further developed the argument that the military-oriented research and development (R & D) would produce various technological innovations that will spill over into the civilian market.
It is argued and demonstrated in this paper, however, that the above points of view can hardly be substantiated in the light of the serious negative consequences for which the activities of the ‘military-industrial complex’ are largely responsible. Contrary to the expectations of ‘military-industrial complex’ and its supporters, not only has U. S. national security declined steadily in the postwar years, but technological spin-off effects benefitting the civilian economy have been marginal. Rather, such military-oriented technological developments have led to overdevelopment or ‘baroque’ technologies which in turn have made the application of military technology in the civilian market increasingly difficult. If spinoffs are wanted, this paper argues, there are better public policies and institutions available to achieve such objectives.
Therefore, the author agrees with Herbert York's prophetic observations made during the 1963 public testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee: “Ever since shortly after World War II, the military power of the United States has been steadily increasing; over the same period the national security of the United States has been rapidly and inexorably decreasing…It is my view that the problem posed to both sides by this dilemma of steadily increasing military power and steadily decreasing national security has no technical solution. If we continue to look for solutions in the area of military science and technology only, the result will be a steady and inexorable worsening of the situation.” In addition, the author suggests that the huge military spending and the emphasis on military R & D by the federal government will distort technological development in the United States and steadily erode the economy.