2013 年 82 巻 p. 91-110
This paper examines the historical processes of the radio broadcasting system of the Manchurian Telegraph and Telephone Company (MTTC), which was the only broadcasting company in Manchukuo, and clarifies how radio media was used to rule Manchukuo. In particular, this paper focuses on the difference between Channel One, which was mainly for Japanese residents broadcast in Japanese, and Channel Two, which was mainly for the Chinese in their own language. First of all, it was strongly anticipated that the radio enterprise of the MTTC would build a "Manchurian national identity." However, the MTTC had to apply a multilingual broadcasting policy, concentrate on the popularization of radio receivers and the establishment of a broadcasting institution. This was because the number of radio listeners in the Manchukuo was too low, there was not enough broadcasting equipment, and what existed was of poor quality. As such, the MTTC was unable to pay sufficient attention to programs aimed at integrating the Manchurian nation. As a result of prioritizing the popularizing of radio broadcasting, the broadcasting policies for Channels One and Two differed. Each channel mainly broadcasted programs which catered to their respective cultures. Their programs, which strongly reflected their cultural backgrounds, were broadcast even on important days like the foundation anniversary of Manchukuo. As a result, the radio system of the MTTC couldn't create a Manchurian national identity; however, it allowed many amateur and local artists living in north-eastern China to broadcast all over Manchukuo. Although the MTTC radio system failed to create the ideology of a Manchurian nation, it was able to create a means of cultural collaboration by serving the residents of the Manchukuo with a single radio system and by opening the stage of radio broadcasting for many amateur and local artists.