マス・コミュニケーション研究
Online ISSN : 2432-0838
Print ISSN : 1341-1306
ISSN-L : 1341-1306
最新号
選択された号の論文の23件中1~23を表示しています
■ 特集 格差社会における人々の意識とテレビの立ち位置の変化―テレビの信頼の揺らぎの構造分析と対策
  • 渡邊 久哲
    原稿種別: 研究論文
    2020 年 96 巻 p. 3-14
    発行日: 2020/01/31
    公開日: 2020/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー

     The term “disparate society” has taken a firm hold in the lexicon when

    describing modern Japanese society. As social problems such as irregular

    employment rates, poverty rates, and the percentage of people that are unmarried

    continue to rise, the government has failed to formulate effective measures.

    This study critically examines the conscious divisions in the minds of people

    brought upon by the widening of disparities as a cause for the increasing distrust

    in television by conducting a nationwide public opinion poll (October

    2018) with a focus on the relationship between subjective class identification

    and trust in television. The results demonstrated that although the age, region

    of residence, size of the city of residence, and household income of poll respondents

    do not impact the level of trust in television, people who self-identify as

    members of the lower levels of society tend to have lower levels of trust in

    television.

  • 災害報道を事例として
    桶田 敦
    原稿種別: 研究論文
    2020 年 96 巻 p. 15-32
    発行日: 2020/01/31
    公開日: 2020/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー

     Regarding the number one reason for trusting television, although the results of studies have shown that people trust television to provide accurate

    information when their lives or livelihoods are at risk during disasters and accidents, questions have been raised regarding whether this trust in disaster

    reporting is wavering. It has been demonstrated that distrust in television reporting in disaster-hit areas is growing due to the disparities between local

    stations and leading stations based in Tokyo, as exemplified by the differences in the results of television reporting during the Kumamoto earthquakes that

    occurred in April 2016 between local stations based in Kumamoto Prefecture and leading Tokyo stations, as well as the differences in discussion topics in the

    reports covering the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster that occurred in March 2011 between local stations based in Fukushima Prefecture and the leading Tokyo stations.

  • 大分朝日放送の戦略
    上野 輝幸
    原稿種別: 研究論文
    2020 年 96 巻 p. 33-46
    発行日: 2020/01/31
    公開日: 2020/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー

     Regarding the number one reason for trusting television, although the

    results of studies have shown that people trust television to provide accurate

    information when their lives or livelihoods are at risk during disasters and accidents,

    questions have been raised regarding whether this trust in disaster

    reporting is wavering. It has been demonstrated that distrust in television

    reporting in disaster-hit areas is growing due to the disparities between local

    stations and leading stations based in Tokyo, as exemplified by the differences

    in the results of television reporting during the Kumamoto earthquakes that

    occurred in April 2016 between local stations based in Kumamoto Prefecture

    and leading Tokyo stations, as well as the differences in discussion topics in the

    reports covering the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster that occurred in

    March 2011 between local stations based in Fukushima Prefecture and the leading Tokyo stations.

  • 読者を知り,自らを変える
    藤谷 健
    原稿種別: 研究論文
    2020 年 96 巻 p. 47-60
    発行日: 2020/01/31
    公開日: 2020/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー

     Recent years have seen the emergence and continued evolution of an

    unprecedented landscape of digital media products and platforms, mobile

    devices, and distribution and consumption patterns. Triggered and accelerated

    by digital innovation, these changes have given rise to new challenges for legacy media organizations, such as newspaper publishers. A transformation of the

    newsroom has been underway in major publishers around the world. The Asahi

    Shimbun, the second largest national daily in Japan, is no exception. This paper

    is in the process of transforming itself into an integrated news organization( i.e.,

    one that publishes in both digital and print formats). Reporters and editors are

    expected to adapt their mindset and workflow and adopt new skills and roles in

    line with audience-first journalism. Given this, we have set three goals: ⑴ to

    serve targeted audiences with targeted content; ⑵ to publish on the platforms

    used by the target audience; and ⑶ to produce and publish continuously to

    meet audience needs. This requires a deeper, broader understanding of the target

    audience, so the paper has developed Hotaru, a new editorial analytics dashboard

    for the newsroom in 2016. An abbreviation of “in-HOuse Tool for Analyzing

    and Reporting Users’ Activities,” Hotaru provides reporters and editors

    with access to a rich source of real-time data, thereby helping them to develop

    a better understanding of the impact of stories and the importance of audience

    engagement. This new habit of looking at data is clearly helping to encourage

    editorial experiments in the newsroom. For instance, if journalists want to

    reach out to mothers for stories on parenting, they can strategically use LINE,

    a messaging app that is popular among mothers. In this case, such stories are

    shared and spread effectively through the mothers’ networks. In another successful

    case, a reporter can, based on single coverage, file two types of stories

    to meet the needs of two different target audience groups.

■ 論文
  • 女性に対する暴力をめぐる視覚表象と「第三世界」女性NGO
    近藤 凜太朗
    原稿種別: 研究論文
    2020 年 96 巻 p. 63-82
    発行日: 2020/01/31
    公開日: 2020/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー

    A number of past studies have addressed the racialized and gendered representations of people from Third World countries by examining the public fundraising and advocacy materials produced by development and human rights non-governmental organizations (NGOs). These studies have highlighted the

    fact that the history of colonialism and contemporary global material inequalities tend to be erased in the name of humanitarianism and by the victimization

    of Third World women and children. However, since most of these studies have

    focused on prominent international NGOs located in European countries and the

    United States of America, the representational practices of Third World NGOs

    are rarely discussed.

      This paper aims to explore how gendered visual representations are

    employed within the materials that Third World women’s NGOs produce for

    the First World public by analyzing a photobook published on the Internet by a

    Bangladeshi women’s NGO that provides support for the survivors of acid violence.

      The results of a quantitative content analysis and a semiological analysis

    have clarified that many of the female survivors portrayed in the photobook

    overcame their suffering and achieved self-realization through inner spiritual

    strength. However, the images of these survivors also contribute to the dominant

    logic of global capitalism by depicting women smiling as they participate

    in income-generating activities, rear children in their capacity as housewives in

    nuclear families, and initiate family planning programs in rural communities. By

    obscuring the complex global forces of economic globalization that have exacerbated

    violence against women in the Third World, the photobook reproduces

    the colonial relationship between Third World women and First World donor

    agencies.

  • 正木 誠子
    原稿種別: 研究論文
    2020 年 96 巻 p. 83-100
    発行日: 2020/01/31
    公開日: 2020/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー

    Defining “TV criticism” as a “negative reaction by viewers with respect to

    TV content,” this study conducted an online survey of 520 male and female

    adults in their 20s and 60s for two purposes. The first purpose was to examine

    quantitatively various aspects of a TV program toward which viewers held a

    critical attitude. The second was to examine the effects of the following five

    factors on attitudes to TV criticism: 1) affinity toward TV content; 2) trust in

    TV content; 3) estimated degree of impact of TV content on others; 4) amount

    of time spent watching TV; and 5) types of frequently viewed TV programs.

     This study revealed that TV criticism can be divided into the following five

    categories by conducting factor analysis: 1) criticism of a lack of neutrality and

    fairness; 2) criticism of poor quality drama; 3) criticism of disrespectful and

    imprudent content; 4) criticism of the promotion of crime and extremist expressions;

    and 5) criticism of frivolous content. Furthermore, with respect to the

    relationship between TV criticism and various factors, the study revealed that

    the height of “estimating the impact of TV content on others” strongly influences

    TV criticism even if the influence of other factors is controlled. This suggests

    that estimating the impact of TV content on others has a robust effect as

    a determinant of TV criticism.

  • 韓 永學
    原稿種別: 研究論文
    2020 年 96 巻 p. 101-119
    発行日: 2020/01/31
    公開日: 2020/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー

     This study outlines the changes throughout history in press regulations in

    the UK while examining their current state and aims to explore the problems

    surrounding them. Primary sources are closely examined to clarify the following

    three points. The first point covers the tradition of self-regulation by the

    press continuing throughout the second half of the 20th century, and how these

    self-regulatory bodies demonstrated that they were not able to sufficiently fulfill

    their regulatory objectives. To address this problem, several press regulators

    were formed, including GCP, PC, and PCC, which have now been reorganized

    as IPSO and IMPRESS. The second point compares IPSO and IMPRESS, covering

    their similarities such as their core organizational structures, standards, and

    tasks, which are mostly the same, while also covering the differences such as

    methods of regulation( IPSO is a reformed version of PCC based on purely selfregulatory

    methods, while IMPRESS imposes co-regulation approved under

    Royal Charter), membership rates in the press (IPSO has many members,

    while IMPRESS has few), financial resources (IPSO is fully funded by members,

    while IMPRESS relies on donations), and the degree of autonomy and

    effectiveness (IPSO is somewhat substandard, while IMPRESS maintains high

    standards). The third point covers how the press regulatory bodies should be

    integrated into IPSO in consideration of the consistency in regulation, constitutional principles regarding freedom of press, and the tradition of press self-regulation,

    but in order to avoid the failures of past regulatory bodies, it is crucial to

    ensure its autonomy (such as by reviewing the authority of the RFC) and

    effectiveness (such as by rationalising standards of investigation and financial

    penalty systems)

  • 闘争映像の政治性と60 年代テレビドキュメンタリーの表現
    洞ヶ瀨 真人
    原稿種別: 研究論文
    2020 年 96 巻 p. 121-138
    発行日: 2020/01/31
    公開日: 2020/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー

    Based on J. Gaines’ discussion of “political mimesis,” this paper examines

    how Japanese television documentaries in the 60s handled the provocative

    power communicated by images of struggles arising from protest movements.

    Gaines’ theory is often mentioned as an independent documentary methodology

    that encourages viewers to take political action. In contrast, this paper focuses

    on TV documentaries’ specific treatment of provocative political mimesis

    among the various broadcasting circumstances. In this media environment, this

    type of biased approach was not easily allowed due to the existence of ethical

    regulations such as the “equal time” rule. Consequently, this prompted filmmakers

    of the time to create alternative methods for representing political images

    in their works. Through this argument, this paper aims to illustrate a historical

    change to the 60s documentary media environment under the emergence of

    television culture and a new way for documentaries to address political issues.

      This paper mostly addresses two themes. The first theme is related to a

    dispute concerning NHK documentaries that displayed protests over the Treaty

    of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan

    (known as the ANPO protests) in 1960. Foreshadowing Gaines’ argument, the

    disputers indeed confronted the provocation of these images to manage its

    impact within the broadcasting media environment. The second theme is

    related to the audio-visual methodologies that were used in a few TV documentaries

    with respect to such protest issues around that time. Introducing R. Williams’

    view of the history of media, which reveals a socio-technological shift in

    communication, this analysis investigates how far the documentary producers

    and their approaches inclined toward a broadcasting-style concept and method ology.

      The results of this analysis show that almost all of the TV documentaries

    that addressed protest issues were commonly produced in accordance with

    broadcasting circumstances that put more weight on information distribution

    than political agitation. However, these documentaries did not dispel political

    mimesis from their representation at all. They used it alternatively together

    with dexterous methodologies aimed at spontaneously fostering an understanding

    of social issues and political awareness inside the minds of the viewers.

  • 日韓国交正常化を巡る「民族」と「国家体制」
    趙 相宇
    原稿種別: 研究論文
    2020 年 96 巻 p. 139-157
    発行日: 2020/01/31
    公開日: 2020/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー

    South Korea’s memory of its colonial past still forms an important part of

    the agenda in Japan-South Korea relations. The press coverage for South Korea’s

    Independence Movement Day on March 1 and Liberation Day on August 15

    has played an extremely important role in spreading such sentiments among

    the Korean public. However, past studies have not examined the features of the

    press coverage for these anniversaries, changes to these features, or the impact

    that Japan-South Korea relations have had on these anniversary press. This

    paper clarifies the features of the press coverage for these anniversaries based

    on an analysis of the editorials and special articles published in the Chosun Ilbo

    and Donga Ilbo newspapers after the end of the Korean War. It also examines

    how these features have appeared and changed in light of the restoration of

    diplomatic ties between Japan and South Korea. The research results revealed

    the following findings. In the 1950s, the press coverage for the March 1 anniversary

    was perceived as “anniversary based on nationhood” and it mainly focused

    on the memory of colonial rule. In contrast, the press coverage for the August

    15 anniversary was perceived as an “anniversary based on statehood” and it

    mainly focused on the development of the state (i.e., the Republic of Korea).

    Later, when the restoration of diplomatic ties between Japan and South Korea

    was about to be realized in the 1960s, these differences evolved into two different

    types of behavior: ⑴ an emphasis on the significance of the memory of the country’s colonial past and ⑵ an emphasis on contemporary problems associated

    with statehood, such as economic growth or poverty. However, after the

    restoration of diplomatic ties was concluded in 1965, the memory of colonial

    rule also became a significant part of the agenda for the August 15 anniversary

    in the sense of avoiding the possibility of this restoration leading to a re-subordination

    to Japan. In conclusion, the country’s memory of its colonial past was

    set as an essential part of the agenda for relations with Japan in press coverage

    for the March 1 and August 15 anniversaries by the restoration of diplomatic

    ties between Japan and South Korea.

  • 森友学園・加計学園・自衛隊日報問題の問題と課題
    佐藤 潤司
    原稿種別: 研究論文
    2020 年 96 巻 p. 159-177
    発行日: 2020/01/31
    公開日: 2020/06/17
    ジャーナル フリー

    This study verifies three cases that have become major social issues (i.e., the falsification of decision documents related to the sale of state-owned land to Moritomo Gakuen, the concealment of consultation documents related to the establishment of a new department of Kake Gakuen, and the concealment of daily reports from the Self-Defense Force units involved in United Nations peacekeeping operations in South Sudan). Furthermore, it clarifies current problems and future challenges related to the system of public records management and information disclosure.

      The results of this study indicate that six problems can be identified in the system of public records management and information disclosure. The first problem is that the relevant administrative bodies do not necessarily prepare the documents that should be prepared. The second problem is that the file management of such documents is inadvertently or deliberately inappropriate. The third problem is that these bodies can arbitrarily discard documents by setting the retention period to less than one year. The fourth problem is that these bodies can easily hide documents by positioning them as personal notes.The fifth problem is that these bodies can refuse to disclose documents because they are classified as non-disclosure information. The sixth problem is that there is no mechanism for preventing the falsification of documents.

      To resolve these problems, it is necessary to revise the Public Records Management Act and the Access to Government Information Act by, for example, making the creation, storage, and publication of public documents mandatory and establishing penalties for any violation of this requirement.

■ 2019年度春季研究発表会 ワークショップ報告
■ 2015年度春季研究発表会 ワークショップ報告
feedback
Top