The purpose of this paper is to review the development of theoretical research in The Japan Society for Studies in Journalism and Mass Communication. Theoretical studies of mass communication in Japan began after World War II. In the course of theoretical interventions into the political and social situation of the time, mass communication theory in Japan relied heavily on mass society theory. This made it possible to articulate media effects theory and journalism theory into mass communication theory. In this articulating process, “the social” and “the political” have played the role of the nodal points. These nodal points connected mass communication theory with not only journalism and media effects studies, but also information society theory and cultural studies.
As media studies have developed, the situation has changed. Media studies has developed under the influence of theoretical fields that are different from traditional mass communication studies. In this paper, we call these theories of media studies as “media theory.” Mass communication theory has been unable to include or articulate with media theory. And media theory in Japan have excluded theories of mass communication studies such as journalism. As a consequence, theories of media and communication studies in Japan are fragmented, and the age of post-theory is about to arrive.
In order to solve this crisis, we need to reevaluate a theoretical significance of “the social” and “the political” as nodal points.
The growth of social media has brought about an increase in so-called “flame wars” wherein people lodge protests against gender bias in media expression from feminist perspectives. The protests are widely circulated online, ending up as a “flaming” incident. This paper reviews the development in media studies, from “women and media” studies of the 1980s which mainly focused on biased depictions of women in mass media to “gender and media” studies prevalent today, thereby demonstrating current issues surrounding online “flame wars”.
One of the characteristics of modern “gender and media” type of studies is that the focus is placed not only on the process through which media constructs the categories of “man” and “woman” but also on the diversity within these categories or intersectionality between gender and other categories （e.g., ethnicity, class, sexuality, disability）. Among the various categories, this paper especially looks at sexual and gender minorities to discuss the importance of incorporating queer studies’ perspectives.
As criticism towards gender biases in media expression continue to spread online and bring about frequent “flame wars”, studies that explore the issues arising from online communication as well as the potentials of such communication are necessary than ever before.
This article plays a part in the special 100th issue of Journal of Mass Communication Studies. We will review the history of journalism studies, the main research theme of this society, based on the featured themes and contents of this academic journal and refer to future challenges.
With regard to journalism studies, feature stories have been put together 14 times so far. Of them, elaborate feature stories have been run on three occasions. The first was reported in 1968 when the young raised revolts around the world. The second was reported three years in a law in the mid-1980s before the collapse of the Cold War and the end of Showa era. The third was appeared for three consecutive years after the Great East Japan Earthquake that hit the Tohoku area in 2011.
In the latest feature, we examined how the natural disaster caused by once-in-a-millennium tsunami that accompanied the Great East Japan Earthquake and the nuclear disaster due to the explosion accident at the tsunami-stricken Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant were reported.Considering the current situation, the next feature is expected to be how Covid-19 catastrophe that shook the world was reported or how Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games held during the Covid-19 pandemic were reported.
It seems that invisible radiation hazard and invisible Covid-19 catastrophe have a lot in common. In view of its nature and role, journalism should go with the times. In that sense, these featured themes clearly show that. However, as the role and function of journalism has weaken with the form of media becoming diversified. Future challenge is to make fundamental reforms to revitalize the dwindling journalism studies.
This paper investigates the history of broadcasting studies in Japan and suggests possibilities for future research. Nearly 100 years have passed since the commencement of broadcasting in Japan. A wide variety of studies about Japanese broadcasting have been conducted. In the 1920s through the 1930s, early radio studies focused on analyzing the characteristics of radio as new medium. However, in the late 1930s through the 1940s, radio studies in Japan changed the opinions that radio was the weapon of state control during the war. After the Second World War, academic institutions were established in Japan, such as the Institute of Journalism and Communication Studies at The University of Tokyo （1949-1992） and the NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute （1946 onward）. These academic institutions created demonstrative research of television and present a new scheme for critical research called “Broadcast Studies”. However, in the 1970s through the 1980s, Japanese broadcasting studies were gradually stagnant because of the bloated broadcasting industries. After the 1990s, Japanese television studies tries to build a new scheme, depending on the theory from overseas such as Cultural Studies and Semiotics. “Archive research” that gain momentum in the 2000s through the 2010s has become the darling of Japanese research on television broadcasts. In other words, an “age of verification” where a number of researchers use radio and television programs as materials for argumentation has started. Nowadays the television viewing is decreasing among young people, on the other hand the viewing images on the Internet such as YouTube and Netflix is more and more increasing. Future broadcasting studies in Japan have to focus on changing a concept of “broadcasting” on the internet age.
The term “media history” itself was coined in the 1970s, but the field of media studies was established in the 1990’s in Japan. The studies of media history have encompassed individual studies of different media, with the historical study of newspapers and television at its core. Much media history research has emerged in last 30 years most of which concentrating on the war and occupation periods between 1931 and 1951. Particularly remarkable was the development of research on Taiwan and Korea, under the Japanese Empire, as well as on Japanese occupied territories and China.
In the study of newspaper history, the social transition of journalists as a group was discussed anew. The historical studies of magazines and publishing has seen the development in the area of readership and magazine genres. Research on news agencies has been carried out over a long period from 19th to the 21st century. As for radio broadcasting, research newly developed the histories of broadcasting in Asia and in the Arab world. In the study of the history of television, a study has appeared on the issue of war and memory in television. In the field of photography and film, a wide variety of research results have been achieved, including the international history of film exchange, research on cinemas and the film industry, and the archiving of documentary films. In the history of advertising, progress was made in the collection of oral histories and in the archiving of advertising material. Media studies of Japanese immigrants have developed mainly on North American newspapers. The historical study of public relations diplomacy and propaganda also took a new turn with studies of the US, China, Japan and Germany.
Cross-media studies include those on media reception in local communities and those on narratives of war. Last but not least important is a meta-study that re-examines the history of media history research itself.
The Japan Society for Studies in Journalism and Mass Communication (the Society) was established in 1951, and since then, it has published 99 volumes of journals entitled “JOURNAL OF MASS COMMUNICATION STUDIES.” Their contents are academic achievements and other related activities by the Society members of academics and media business professionals. This article reviewed the whole associated articles on the subject, focusing on media law and ethics, which contributed to the journals from No.1, issued in the same year of the birth of the Society, to the latest No.99. Up until the year 2021, the Society has published 530 articles in total. And among those articles, 52 were media-ethics related (9.8% of the capacity) and 38 dealt with domestic issues (7.2%), and 14 were about international matters (2.6%). The authors came to find several characteristics from those articles. As Japan had been under the control of U.S. occupation forces until 1952, especially media-related academic activities, were, even after that period, psychologically controlled by such political environment with an understanding of media-justice represented by the words: freedom of the press psychologically defined by the U.S. occupation regime. A similar situation is true in the business management of media organs. In many discussion cases, Japan’s media-related matters have been dealt with openly to contribute to such political and social frameworks. And, behind the scene, how to maintain financial and political benefits for their own media corporations has been continuously existing. And such a hidden structure has sometimes put the audience’s benefits behind. The authors tried to show such structures of Japanese media society to encourage progressive media academics and working media professionals to contribute more for the benefits of the people and the Society under the radically changing “New Information Age.” As a whole, the authors proposed 11 ways to make Japanese media performance and information age better in our daily lives against unfavorable controlling business and political powers under unprecedented media landscape.
The history of the research of mass-mediated culture in the Japan Association for Media, Journalism and Communication Studies is classified in five stages. In the first stage (1952-1969), studies of mass-mediated culture emerged as the study of television culture and mass culture. In this period, the influence of broadcasting on human culture was highly controversial. In the second period (1970s-1980s), the study remained focused on television culture. Interdisciplinary projects involving anthropology, sociology, and folklore studies characterized the research of these years. During the third period (1990s), under the influence of British cultural studies, Japanese media studies began to include area studies, gender studies, and feminist theory. Transnational cultural exchanges and global communication also became important issues. In the beginning of 21st century, a fourth period saw studies of popular culture and subculture, rather than mass-culture, become the central focus of research, including manga, popular music, and mobile phone communications. The concept of mass-communication was no longer effective with the emergence of personal communication through the internet; no longer a passive audience of big media industry, individuals became active cultural creators. Thus, in the fifth stage of research (2010s), studies of fan culture as an active recipient and transnational fan communities as “girls culture” became a focus of research. At the same time, the mediated environment of museums and movie theaters also became a research topic. Through the seventy-year history of the association, studies of mass-mediated culture have primarily targeted the culture of ordinary citizens rather than the high culture of elites. Studies of culture have been and will remain an important genre in and outside of our academic society, for cultural activities are core to human identity.
The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the study of the network society, limited to the fields of sociology and media studies.
First, I will review how the concept of network has been formulated as a technical term. Secondly, I will critically review the arguments of Manuel Castel, who is considered to have been the most influential in establishing the study of network society in the social sciences. I will focus on The Rise of The Network Society, published in 1996, and The Internet Galaxy (2001). The reason for picking up these books is that his argument has formed the basis of subsequent research. I believe it is an important reference point for considering the differences between his research and subsequent research. Third, I will review the results of various domestic and international studies that have captured the changes that have occurred since the mid-2000s, from the media environment represented by e-mail, blogs, and cell phones to the media environment in which SNS, smartphones, and AI technologies have rapidly penetrated. Finally, I think about tuture issues.
This study examines and describes newspaper publishing activities and press policies in early colonial Taiwan by analyzing local newspapers, mainland Japanese newspapers, English newspapers published in Japan and China, and the archives of Goto Shinpei and the Government-General of Taiwan. These materials have been rarely examined in previous studies.
Newspapers were first published in Taiwan by Europeans at the end of the Qing Dynasty. When Taiwan came under Japanese rule, newspapers published by the Japanese adhered to mainland Japanese press laws, controlling the public sphere in Japanese-, Chinese-, and English-language media. During that time, public opinion in Taiwan, mainland Japan, and various international communities criticized the Government-General. However, when Goto became the Chief of Civil Affairs in the Government-General of Taiwan in 1898, he newly integrated Taiwan’s public sphere, which had been separate from mainland Japan and other overseas jurisdictions.
To compete with the publications by Europeans in Taiwan, which were protected by extraterritoriality under existing unequal treaties, Goto introduced new colonial press laws in 1900. Because these laws adopted a territoriality principle, any national seeking to publish newspapers in Taiwan required prior permission from the Government-General. Under these circumstances, three major newspapers, published in each of three cities, took a leading role in developing Taiwan press system. To attract Han Taiwanese intellectuals, both Japanese- and Chinese-language columns were placed in these Japanese-managed newspapers.
Readers of those hybrid ethnic newspapers were usually referred to as shinshi “gentlemen,” a word connecting the concept of eastern shishen “scholar-gentry” to the western concept of the bourgeois. Thus, there was a variation on Habermas’s “bourgeois public sphere” that could be reasonably described as a “gentlemanly public sphere,” drawing prosperous, educated, and respectable Japanese and Han Taiwanese collaborators, who supported Goto’s policy of modernization in colonial Taiwan.
This paper considers the “public media” that Japan Broadcasting Corporation （NHK） aims for, the role required of the public media, and the way it should be, based on discussions on the Internet business and the bloat of NHK.
NHK has engaged in the simultaneous distribution of broadcast programs to the Internet, which differs from its original mission, while it faces criticism regarding conducting Internet business based on the fees collected for the purpose of broadcasting. Additionally, NHK has expanded the scale of the group through for-profit projects conducted by related organizations, despite being criticized for its organization’s bloat.
This paper clarifies these problems and highlights the following.
The role of the public media is to fulfill the “journalism mission” of monitoring public authority and providing citizens with information that contributes to the formation of public opinions, not only through broadcasting but also through the Internet. It also compensates for the weaknesses of other media, such as commercial broadcasting.
Conversely, if the management of commercial broadcasters and newspapers becomes difficult due to the bloat of NHK, freedom of speech and the diversity of information may be impaired, leading to restrictions on the people’s right to know.
If NHK continues to expand its Internet business, it needs to provide a compelling explanation to dispel such concerns.
After World War II, an action called the “Campaign against Bad Books （Akusho Tsuihou Undou）,” rejected men’s entertainment/pornographic magazines, led by many mothers’ groups, police, and the government in Japan. As a part of this movement, in 1963, the “White Post Box” was placed in Amagasaki City, Kobe Prefecture, to collect “bad books.” This post box subsequently emerged in Tokyo in 1966 and spread to many other prefectures in the late 1960s. However, it is rare to see such a post box nowadays, and their number has been decreasing nationwide since the 1980s. This article discusses how this post box was omnipresent and used in the 1960s and the 1970s by exploring mass media discourses and representations. Mothers expected this box to serve as a gatekeeper in protecting underage children from so-called, “harmful books,” which were brought into their homes by the fathers. The police and the national government also wanted this equipment to become a symbol of the “Campaign against Bad Books” movement, to activate and accelerate this atmosphere. The reality differed from their expectations; people often used it as a garbage can. As the number of harmful books did not gradually decrease, the actors of this movement and mass media became indifferent to this box. Unfortunately, some people began to steal its contents, and finally, people started to consider it useless in the early 1970s. In conclusion, the White Post Box was a physical media that worked to visualize the discourse of “harmful media/non-harmful media” through its own body, by being placed in the public space. In other words, this equipment further contributed to this latent function than to a manifest function: gatekeeping to protect children from “bad books.”
The newspaper media began to play an important role in France in the mid-19th century as the appearance of popular newspapers expanded the classes of readers and the newspaper market grew significantly. This study examined the characteristics of people engaged in newspaper production in this period, using the Analyse des Correspondances Multiples （ACM）, which draws on the field theory of Pierre Bourdieu. The term “field” in Bourdieu”s theory indicates a social space where specific rules operate, autonomous from other domains. To clarify what kind of homology or differentiation is present in the characteristics of professionals producing newspapers, this study analyzed the qualitative attributes of the professions of “journaliste” and “publiciste” in newspaper production based on data from a biographical dictionary published in the mid-19th century using the ACM method. This study calculated the qualitative variables as “distance” and demonstrated proximity among attributes such as profession or position in the production of newspapers.
The results indicated that the two professions had, to some extent, different capital structures. On the one hand, “publicistes” were active in two media markets and, from the standpoint of the origin of social class and the additional profession, had more pronounced proximity to the political field. On the other hand, although “journalistes” did not have clear proximity to other fields, they occupied a more important position than “publicistes” in the editing and management of newspapers and were located closer to popular newspapers. In conclusion, the journalistic field in the French newspaper market in the mid-19th century was not autonomous, but rather an intersection of the roles and intentions of editors, politicians, and others.
This paper clarifies the interaction between journalism and social authorities through commemoration to construct the war memory, focusing on the “memorial visit” conducted by Heisei Tennō and the social remembrance of the Battle of Manila. Heisei Tennō visited the Philippines in January 2016 as a final overseas destination in his lifelong journey to console the spirits of war victims.
In conventional journalism theory, social authorities are perceived as powers enforcing the dominant memory frameworks through commemoration, while “forgotten” memories are invisible. Journalism stands on the same side as social authority and either reinforces these frameworks or opposes the authority’s stance and criticizes them.
During the “memorial visit,” however, Heisei Tennō attempted to unearth the “forgotten” memory （the Battle of Manila）, and his trip triggered a debate about Asian-Pacific war memory in Japanese society. Journalists also noticed the importance of this memory and reported it on a much larger extent than before. This situation shows that social authorities and journalism can interact with each other, and these interactions can excavate “forgotten” memories.
In this paper, I analyze articles from the Asahi Shimbun, Yomiuri Shimbun, Nikkei Shimbun, and Manila Shimbun （local newspaper in Manila）, and clarify the structure in which Japanese journalism became aware of the memory of the Battle of Manila through reports on the “memorial visit.” It becomes clear that the three Japanese newspapers had hardly reported on the Battle of Manila before the “memorial visit.” Moreover, the number of reports increased dramatically during the journey. In addition, I discuss the difficulty of the continuous recall of memories led by a one-time event （“memorial visit”） from the viewpoint of journalism routine theory （news value theory and August journalism in Japan）.
This study examined the experience of watching typhoons on television from the perspective of media history. Focusing on the Ise Bay Typhoon （1959） and the Second-Muroto Typhoon （1961）, the study compared how each typhoon was reported on television and how the reports were evaluated by people. We referred to newspapers, broadcasting magazines, and meteorological magazines to gather a wide range of materials that described the media experience of the two typhoons.
The two typhoons occurred during the transitional period of the media environment, when television was growing rapidly. When the Ise Bay typhoon hit, radio was the mainstream media; it was not common to obtain disaster prevention information on television. However, on television, weather experts provided people with typhoon risk reduction information. People who owned a television were able to watch weather maps and typhoon information on it. However, the typhoon disrupted signal transmission and brought massive blackouts, interrupting the TV broadcast of footage of the typhoon hitting cities. In the case of the Ise Bay Typhoon, television programs could only report on the damaged areas after the typhoon had left.
In contrast, when the Second-Muroto Typhoon hit, many people were able to watch typhoon information on TV. We identified two kinds of viewing experiences on TV. The first was the same as in the case of the Ise Bay Typhoon: watching typhoon information delivered by experts on TV. The second was to watch the coverage of the typhoon hitting the cities, which was broadcast live via TV networks. As such, people in the areas where the typhoon would pass could watch it on TV. In other words, television enabled people to see typhoons with a predictive effect. This “predictive effect” allowed people to understand weather phenomena even without any knowledge of science.
This paper suggests that the evolution of media reporting anonymous suspects from covering real names is likely to occur when the National Human Rights Institution （NHRI） refrains police from abusing the suspect’s human rights during criminal investigations.
The media reports on crime in South Korea do not consist of both suspects’ names and pictures, but this had not been the case until the 1990s. After the democratization, the Korean government geared toward introducing new institutions to promote their democracy and human rights norms. One of them was the National Human Rights Commission of Korea （NHRCK）, established in 2001. NHRCK is an independent institution from the government, and its major role is the prevention of human rights abuses committed by criminal investigations at the hands of the police and prosecutor’s office. A series of incidents made clear the police’s poor understanding of suspects’ and victims’ human rights, instigating the NHRCK to intervene in the investigative process. As a result of this, the police and the prosecutor’s office amended their investigation rules to help maintain suspects’ and victims’ privacy and rights.
The Korean media, which had reported suspects’ privacy until then, changed their policies so as not to report the names or pictures of suspects because they conceived a major change in human rights norms in Korea. Public figures such as politicians, public officers, C.E.O.s, etc., however, are not included in the list, so the media does not hesitate to report their corruption by real name.
Yet, an argument postulating that heinous criminals must be reported under their real names exists, and this led to the establishment of police’s Personal Information Disclosure Commission, an organization which decides whether a criminal’s personal information is worth reporting to the public. The principal of the media, however, remains reporting suspects not by their real names, and this is unlikely to change soon.
This study explores the journalism award system and award-giving practices at both national and provincial levels in China. Since the 1990s, an established award system has existed in China, through which the Chinese Communist Party and government have tended to define “good quality news” to control journalists and news production. The central argument of this study, however, is that even under an authoritarian regime, differences in award-giving practices are evident at the provincial level. Due to their diverse political economies, provincial governments have various interpretations of “good quality news” and thus attitudes toward media control. Following an empirical content analysis comparing article winners of the national and three provincial―Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangdong―journalism awards between 1997 and 2017, two conclusions were reached. First, the findings reveal that although the official award system is designed as a top-down structure, there are remarkable differences in the content of award-winning articles at the provincial (horizontal) level; thus, a variance in media control between national and provincial government is demonstrated in authoritarian China. Second, drastic changes can be seen in the award-giving practice of Guangdong and Beijing since Xi Jinping became China’s president in 2013: between 2013 and 2017, significantly fewer award-winning articles exhibit watchdog journalism. It is evident, therefore, that the Chinese Communist Party and government exercise less tolerance toward criticism of their power in the media under Xi Jinping.
This article analyzes the emergence of kuchi komi （“word of mouth”） as a mode of information presentation in magazines from the 1980s to the early 1990s, from the perspective of social constructivism. The collection and presentation in the printed form of kuchi komi appeared in the 1980s and began to appear as a section in magazines in approximately 1990. Meanwhile, many texts introduced the influence of kuchi komi, whichis not used as an object of formulation or to understand social trends, but rather, as a term to frame the information. Thus, kuchi komi in magazines and books expanded from “mention” to “use.” This article shows that the presentation of kuchi komi in printed form is important for the establishment of this mode of information.
The late 1960s have been overlooked in the history of the Japanese animation industry. This period falls between the rise of television animation and the liquidation of the industry as major studios faced financial crises. Therefore, it seems to have been evaluated as a process of gradual decline. However, this was a time when the focus of animation has switched from theatrical production to television production. Given that in Japan, commercial animation is mainly produced by TV animation, this change is significant. This paper focuses on the changes that have occurred at Toei Animation, a major animation production company in Japan. By focusing on the background of these changes, this study aims to clarify the significance of this period. For this purpose, this study collects various accounting and internal documents, reminiscences of those involved, and company histories. Based on this, the author analyzes the relationship between Toei Animation, its parent company, and TV stations. The results shows that the parent company provided informal support to Toei Animation, suggesting that the production environment was relatively stable compared to later periods. Furthermore, the author indicates that the subsequent framework of TV animation production regarding “broadcasting rights” and “merchandising rights” was established in this period. In this era, Toei Animation produced some of the studio’s most popular works in both film and television. These are not simply created by chance or driven by circumstances. Rather, they reflect the environment that makes them possible. The late 1960s can be viewed as a period in which Toei Animation actively responded to the changes of this era and laid the foundation for the era to come.