A number of past studies have addressed the racialized and gendered representations of people from Third World countries by examining the public fundraising and advocacy materials produced by development and human rights non-governmental organizations （NGOs）. These studies have highlighted the
fact that the history of colonialism and contemporary global material inequalities tend to be erased in the name of humanitarianism and by the victimization
of Third World women and children. However, since most of these studies have
focused on prominent international NGOs located in European countries and the
United States of America, the representational practices of Third World NGOs
are rarely discussed.
This paper aims to explore how gendered visual representations are
employed within the materials that Third World women’s NGOs produce for
the First World public by analyzing a photobook published on the Internet by a
Bangladeshi women’s NGO that provides support for the survivors of acid violence.
The results of a quantitative content analysis and a semiological analysis
have clarified that many of the female survivors portrayed in the photobook
overcame their suffering and achieved self-realization through inner spiritual
strength. However, the images of these survivors also contribute to the dominant
logic of global capitalism by depicting women smiling as they participate
in income-generating activities, rear children in their capacity as housewives in
nuclear families, and initiate family planning programs in rural communities. By
obscuring the complex global forces of economic globalization that have exacerbated
violence against women in the Third World, the photobook reproduces
the colonial relationship between Third World women and First World donor
This study verifies three cases that have become major social issues （i.e., the falsification of decision documents related to the sale of state-owned land to Moritomo Gakuen, the concealment of consultation documents related to the establishment of a new department of Kake Gakuen, and the concealment of daily reports from the Self-Defense Force units involved in United Nations peacekeeping operations in South Sudan）. Furthermore, it clarifies current problems and future challenges related to the system of public records management and information disclosure.
The results of this study indicate that six problems can be identified in the system of public records management and information disclosure. The first problem is that the relevant administrative bodies do not necessarily prepare the documents that should be prepared. The second problem is that the file management of such documents is inadvertently or deliberately inappropriate. The third problem is that these bodies can arbitrarily discard documents by setting the retention period to less than one year. The fourth problem is that these bodies can easily hide documents by positioning them as personal notes.The fifth problem is that these bodies can refuse to disclose documents because they are classified as non-disclosure information. The sixth problem is that there is no mechanism for preventing the falsification of documents.
To resolve these problems, it is necessary to revise the Public Records Management Act and the Access to Government Information Act by, for example, making the creation, storage, and publication of public documents mandatory and establishing penalties for any violation of this requirement.