2008 年 22 巻 6 号 p. 35-41
Background Periodontal disease is a multiple infection caused by bacteria represented by Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg). The prevalence of periodontal disease is high, as it predominantly affects the people in the same age range as diabetes mellitus, but it is often overlooked because of the lack of subjective symptoms. There has been a need for the introduction of self-sampled device-treated plasma using fingertip capillary blood in routine tests.
Methods Based on the report by Kudo et al. (Beppu Conference 2006, p.46, 2006) on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a blood test for periodontal disease bacteria, the precision and disease specificity were examined towards the establishment of a methodology for routine tests.
Results The intra-assay reproducibility of the measurements using Pg and 3 other types of antigens, Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Eikenella corroders (Ec), and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), was coefficient of variation (CV) 4-7%, and the results from capillary blood and those from venous blood were closely analogous to each other with a correlation (r) of 0.900 or more. The difference between the non-periodontal control subjects group and the periodontal disease group in the distribution of data on histograms using the Pg antigen was approximately 7-fold. In addition, the correlation with mean periodontal pocket depth was significant (r=0.597, p<0.001) in the group showing the test results (SD index; SDI) of 20 or more. These results substantiated the specificity of this method.
Conclusion The ability to detect periodontal disease in the setting of “Human Dry Dock” screening examinations using the sampling and test methods proposed by us would be an important means to improve services. This study established the practical feasibility of this approach.