Cardiovascular regenerative therapy has the potential to improve the treatment of peripheral artery disease (PAD), ischemic heart disease (IHD) and severe heart failure. Autologous implantation of bone marrow-mononuclear cells into ischemic limbs was reported as an effective application by the secretion of various angiogenic factors or cytokines. On the other hand, bone marrow cells and skeletal myoblasts transplantation for cardiac angiogenic therapy, injected directry into cardiac ischemic lesion, was generally insufficient to repair severe myocardial damage. To improve the efficacy of cardiac cell therapy, cell sheet technology was developed to reduce the damage of the transplanted cells. The discovery of iPS cells and cardiac master genes have changed the field of cardiac regenerative medicine. Because cardiomyocytes are terminally differentiated cells with limited regenerative capacity in adult heart, implantation of cardiomyocyte cell-sheet differentiated from iPS cells or the other pluripotent cell types, is expected as a new strategy of cardiac cell therapy. Moreover, direct cardiac reprograming which means cardiac fibroblasts induced converting directry into cardiomyocytes in damaged cardiac tissue, was discovered recentry. Here, this review summarizes recent advances in cardiovascular regenerative therapy and discusses the perspectives and challenges of new technology in basic biology and clinical applications.