2021 Volume 9 Pages 43-55
Fumonisin is a worldwide mycotoxin that has devastating implications for human and animal health and food security. The principal source of fumonisin contamination is the members of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). A cluster (FUM gene cluster) of 16 co-expressed genes (FUM) responsible for fumonisin biosynthesis has been identified and characterized in Fusarium verticillioides. The FUM gene cluster has been detected from other members of the FFSC. In this review, the fumonisin production ability and the status of the FUM gene cluster in 3 clades (African, American, and Asian) of the FFSC have been presented. The comprehensive studies revealed that intraspecific variation is caused by several types of mutations in the FUM gene cluster. In addition, we summarized the regulatory genes involving fumonisin biosynthesis. A comparative study of fumonisin production ability and regulatory mechanism of fumonisin biosynthesis provides valuable insight for control of the mycotoxin contamination.