2011 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 149-168
This study defines the students who have continuously belonged to a sports club built systematically in the school constitution as “TAIIKUKAIKEI” students, and clarifies when and how this idea came into being and the common understanding that “TAIIKUKAIKEI” students could be regarded as more favorable human resources than the other students in job hunting in Japan. The document sources are mainly gathered from articles in the business magazine ‘JITSUGYOU NO NIHON’ , that was circulated widely from the end of the Meiji era to the beginning of the Showa era.
The results are summarized as follows. At the beginning of the Taisho era, the idea or consciousness of “TAIIKUKAIKEI” had not existed yet, but there was a belief that it was necessary to have a robust body in order to survive the competition of society. In the middle of the Taisho era, behind the growing enthusiasm for sports, people became conscious that lots of executives of big companies had been “TAIIKUKAIKEI” and it had the media values of : (1) advertisement and (2) prevention of being left in remote colonial places, and so it was observed that “TAIIKUKAIKEI employment” was coming into being. By the end of the Taisho era, reflecting the excessive emphasis on academic attainments in recruiting, “TAIIKUKAIKEI employment” came to be established.
Afterwards, at the beginning of the Showa era, the process of distinguishing between "Professional” and “Amateur” became clearer and the latter became dominant over the former in “TAIIKUKAIKEI employment” , and sportsmanship became a more important element in composing a useful body. In the days when the labor movement was growing radically in response to the depression, ideological problems such as alerting to Marxists, leftists, and communists were supposed to be social issues. In this context, the students with physical and mental problem-this study named them “KYOYOKEI” in contrast to “TAIIKUKAIKEI” -received negative images and seemed to have been shunned by companies. At the same time, because the “TAIIKUKAIKEI” had not changed anything, they were understood to have a moderate ideology and to be more important from the viewpoint of employment.