The Olympic Paralympic games will be held for the 2nd time in Tokyo in 2020. For this aim, important sporting events have been planned nationwide. In recent years, large-scale sporting events having 10,000 participants have been held in Japan. The participants in these sporting events are supported by many sports volunteers. As a feature of this sport volunteer activity, the volunteer leaders and volunteers who participate are unacquainted, Furthermore, it is an organization in which people meet for the first time on the day of the event. In this study, such an organization is referred to as a short-term set type organization. In this organization, adjustments or arrangements between volunteer leaders and volunteer members cannot be made sufficiently in advance. Therefore, it is expected that there may be situations in which people may work without a set role and in which the work they do cannot be predicted beforehand. In accordance with the theory of organizational behavior in recent years, a study of OCB (Organization Citizenship Behavior) was done. Organ (1983) defined OCB as behavior which does not require formal job behavior, and for which an organizational structure member performs organization citizen behavior. It is also considered to be behavior which promotes the effective function of an organization. Since this study was based on the results of only one event (Daigo 2017) it is necessary to refer to use research from previous studies. A questionnaire was distributed to a total of 650 leaders and volunteers, and they were directly returned to the researcher. As the result of analysis, it became clear that organization citizen behavior increased as the leaders gave supportive leadership to the volunteer individuals.
In this study, we introduce a rubric that includes items for evaluating skills and abilities required within professional sports clubs, as part of the Project Based Learning (PBL) for sport management education. The purpose of this study was to discuss effective ways of utilizing rubrics and to identify points for improvement during the process of introducing the training, thus accumulating findings that could contribute to better PBL. Four points were identified from the results. First, including rubrics enabled the sharing of the desired learning goals, making it easier to reconcile cognitive differences between teachers and students. Second, it helped rectify diffuse selection criteria for student evaluation scales and clarify differences in the explicitly written content between each scale level of a rubric, which is why the adoption of a 5-stage evaluation is desirable. Third, it was found that teacher intervention is required in designing PBL and in determining the division of roles among students, especially in terms of eliminating differences in the opportunities students have to acquire skills. Finally, post-training reflection accompanied with written descriptive work, going beyond the mere selection of scale levels, is useful.
The aim of this study was to investigate the recognition of national park sites compared with World Heritage sites in Japan among young Japanese. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among university students with interest in leisure sports activities (n = 410) to ascertain their recognition and interest in visiting a World Heritage or national park site. As a result of inquiring about World Heritage sites in Japan, there were answers, mentioning many registered sites, including Mt. Fuji, Yakushima, and so on. However, in the case of national park sites in Japan, they could hardly give the names of any specific sites. Although about 70% of the participants were interested in visiting a World Heritage site, less than half of the participants were interested in national park sites. Even among individuals not interested in the national park sites, about half of them were interested in World Heritage sites. These results suggest that although the places of world heritage are widely known, the national parks are hardly recognized. Furthermore, although most participants are interested in traveling to a World Heritage site, few participants want to travel to a national park. Currently, the Ministry of the Environment is undertaking a reform of the system, aiming to brand Japanese national parks as world-class national parks. This is expected to lead to promotion of interest in national parks in Japan.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the structure and characteristics of Japanese industry for upgrading the Japanese Sport Satellite Account (SSA) created by the Development Bank of Japan while clarifying the relationship between the Vilnius Definition of Sport, which is conducted in EU, and the classification of Japan’ s input/output (IO) table. The data was collected from the report of Japanese SSA, based on the Japanese IO table, and then a comparison of the Vilnius definition of Sport and its IO table classification was made. The data from every classification are shown in detail. The results of this study reveal that the Japanese sport industry generated a Gross Value Added (GVA) of 6.6 trillion yen in 2011, 6.3 trillion yen in 2012, 6.6 trillion yen in 2013, and 6.7 trillion yen in 2014. In addition, considering the structure of the Japanese SSA with the sport sector, the distribution sector and the input sector were shown to be effective in this study. As a result, Japan′s IO table classification was widely accepted, according to the goods and services of the Vilnius Definition. In fact, the sport sector contributed 70% of the whole Japanese sport industry, the distribution was 15%, and the remaining contribution was made by the input sector. Therefore, 1 trillion yen was produced in the upstream (the input sector) of producing sports goods and services. The main stream (the sport sector) generated around 4.5 to 4.7 trillion yen. Finally, 1 trillion yen was generated in the distribution of the sports goods and services (the distribution sector). Furthermore, looking at each classification in the Japanese sport industry, “sports activities”, “education”, “retail” and “wholesale trade” were bigger than others.