This study aimed to clarify the consciousness related to voluntary participation in sports volunteering by university students. The framework of this study was to structuralize university students’ image toward sports volunteering by using exploratory methods while referencing the scale used in participation motivation studies. We also used structured university students’ image toward sports volunteering and examined its impact on their eagerness to participate in sports. Survey respondents consisted of 828 university students nationwide, and the data was collected using an Internet survey. Based on the result of the analysis, we extracted six factors: “contribution to society,” “benefits to themselves,” “utilization of sports skills,” “being an athlete,” “participation in the department to which they belong,” and “acquisition of job skills” as images toward sports volunteering held by the university students. When we examined the relationship with their eagerness to participate in sports volunteering, it became clear that “acquisition of job skills” has the most influence on their image toward the participation of university students in sports volunteering. Focusing on sports volunteering activities by scale revealed that “acquisition of job skills” and “benefits to themselves” had an influence on their eagerness to participate in sports volunteering at international and national levels and regional and daily life levels, respectively.
Pride is an important emotion that functions positively for mastery, proficiency, and success in sports. The purpose of this study was to classify pride experiences of athletes, and to explore their characteristics. University student-athletes (n=195) were asked to come to think of and describe their experiences of pride in sport. The collected emotional episodes were first organized into three components: “situation,” “incident,” and “individual.” After that, each component was further classified as follows: First, “situation” was categorized into five categories: ‘achievement,’ ‘praise,’ ‘desirable action,’ ‘limelight,’ and ‘cheered.’ Next, “incident” was categorized into seven categories: ‘sociality,’ ‘accomplishment,’ ‘diligence,’ ‘benefit,’ ‘ability,’ ‘cooperation,’ and ‘success.’ Then, the “individual” was categorized into four categories: ‘self,’ ‘teammates,’ ‘group,’ and ‘entourage.’ Chi square test for categorical variables in each component showed that ‘achievement,’ ‘sociality,’ and ‘self’ occurred significantly more often. Correspondence analysis then revealed that ‘self’ was related to ‘achievement,’ ‘sociality,’ and ‘diligence,’ while ‘teammate’ was related to ‘desirable action,’ ‘accomplishment,’ and ‘ability.’ These results provide two suggestions: 1) pride is experienced not only in superiority by social comparison, but also in building good relationships with others; 2) university student-athletes tend to experience pride in relationships rather than superiority. It will be necessary to substantiate these findings in future research.
The purpose of this study is to develop the scale of Participant Motivation in tennis and to confirm the reliability and validity of the scale, and to classify tennis club members into some types according to Participant Motivation and to understand their characteristics in each segment. Focusing on three tennis clubs in Fukuoka, we conducted research. We conducted two studies as follows :【Study 1】: We created the scale of Participant Motivation in tennis based on previous research, and examined reliability by exploratory factor analysis using data of research on tennis club members. Moreover, we conducted research with another tennis club, and examined reliability and validity in the scale by confirmative factor analysis.【Study 2】: Using data of research for tennis club members, we conducted hierarchical cluster analysis by seven factors in motives of tennis participation. Then, we classified tennis club members into some types and clarified their characteristics in each segment. The main findings are summarized as follows : Firstly, we clarified 7 factors; “Recognition”, “Personal Development”, “Social Facilitation”, “Competition”, “Skill Mastery”, “Physical Fitness”, and “Stress Reduction”, as motives of tennis participation, and the reliability and validity of the scale was confirmed. Then, tennis club members were classified into six clusters according to motives for tennis participation, and each characteristic in the six clusters was clarified. Consequently, some implications were suggested from the study for further development of lesson programs in commercial tennis clubs.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the aim and problems of a “club activity activation project” involving professional coaches from corporations who have been employed for extracurricular sports activities (ESA) at public junior high schools in Suginami City, Tokyo. The study conducted expert interviews in 2019 with three people, including an official of the city administration, as well as a staff member and an instructor at a private sports company in Tokyo. As results of this research, the study clarified the following points : Suginami City instituted this project in 2013 using its budget. Suginami City uses professional coaches for ESA that were earlier supervised by teachers with no experience in playing sports, as their expertise was in subjects other than physical education. The purpose of the “club activity activation project” is to allow students to enjoy the experience of club activities, and also to reduce the burden on teachers. However, the project is facing difficulties in finding coaches for individual sports such as soft tennis. The project to revitalize ESA was initiated so that private sector instructors could rectify the unequal situation in which club activities were not feasible.
This study sought to clarify the components of the legacy to sport and social aspects from the Olympic and Paralympic Games. We conducted semi-structured personal interviews with 39 participants between the ages of 20 and 86 who had experienced the Olympic and Paralympic Games in their own countries in various positions. Text data on the factors of “sport” and “social legacies” were collected. Following this, the data were summarized using the KJ method. Accordingly, the data were sorted into 28 categories – such as “came to support the players” (as a sport legacy). This was then further sorted into 24 categories, such as “the feeling of caring has increased” (as a social legacy). On the other hand, it was also clear that there were negative sport and social legacies, such as “recognizing the shortcomings of one’s home country”. In order to create and sustain a positive sport and social legacy, it is necessary to pay attention to the negative legacy as well. Moreover, this research suggests the need to develop measures to bridge the “legacy gap”.
The purpose of this research note was to examine relationships between specialization factors and sport and video game experiences among e-sport players. Based on a literature review, two research hypotheses were established; (a) e-sport players’specialization factors positively associated with sport experiences, and (b) e-sport players’specialization factors positively associated with video game experiences. To test the hypotheses, an online survey was conducted for those who played e-sports daily. With the usable data from 102 participants, multiple regression analyses were conducted with specialization factors as dependent variables and sport and video game experiences as independent variables. The results identified no significant relationships between specialization factors and sport and video game experiences; thus, both hypotheses were rejected. This unexpected result might be due to the unique characteristics of e-sports, suggesting that this new sport activity is not simply a combination of sports and video games. Overall, these results indicate that it is necessary to develop e-sport marketing and promotion activities based on their unique specialization factors.