1980 年 22 巻 2 号 p. 38-55
The tariff policy of the Nanking Government played an important part in protecting and developing Chinese modern industries, while it resulted in a great loss to the Japanese trade interests and intensified the Sino-Japanese friction. For most historians of modern China under the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party) regime (1927-1949), the political history, particularly the history of Chinese Communism has been the central interest; as a result the economic history under the Kuomintang regime has been seen as subordinate in value in the study of modern China. It is very difficult, however, to understand the cause of the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) unless we make it clear that, to encourage domestic modern industries, the Nanking Government pursued various economic policies, which exerted considerable effects on China's industrial development and deprived Japan of her interests in China. (1) In order to assess the effects of the tariff policy, this research attempt to deal with the tariff level, the import trade and the domestic production of the respective commodities of eleven industries including dyeing and printing of piece goods, cement, match, artificial silk weaving, flour milling, cotton spinning, cotton weaving, tobacco, wool spinning, wool weaving, and sugar industries. The value output of these eleven commodities represent about 57 percent of total industrial production in 1933. Our data show that China managed to attain a substantial expansion of her modern industrial sector, while the tariff levels increased and the imports declined under the tariff policy of the Nanking Government. (2) By means of recomposing the statistical data in China Maritime Customs Annual Reports, this paper also reveals that the development of Chinese modern light industries had drastically shifted the foreign trade structure of China. It points out that the main imports were changing from the commodities of light industries to those of heavy industries, and that Japanese goods of light industries were remarkably decreasing to one-thirteenth during this period (1926-1936).