2021 年 34 巻 3 号 p. 213-222
The WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) framework for analyzing the relevance of a cancer mode of action (MoA) for humans (IPCS cancer-HRF) is an application to assess human relevance of tumorigenic hazards found through rodent bioassays. The chloroacetanilide herbicides, butachlor and alachlor, induced enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell tumors in rat stomachs, at the highest doses. This study analyzed the human relevance of this tumor by applying the IPCS cancer-HRF using published data. In a postulated MoA, early key events (KEs) included decreased mucosal thickness in the fundic region, due to reduced parietal cells. The following KEs included increased pH of gastric acid and hypergastrinemia, leading to enhanced cell proliferation and hyperplasia, and resulting in the outcome of an ECL cell tumor. The data showed consistencies in dose-response and temporal concordance with the KEs and specificity in the tumor response, providing strengthened evidence of the KEs. While the early KE was not the same, similar MoAs have already been established for omeprazole and ciprofloxacin. The integrated data indicated that the postulated MoAs were biologically plausible. Alternative MoAs were excluded.. Based on sufficient evidence, an MoA was established in rats. When addressing chemically inducible MoAs of human relevance, KEs of hypergastrinemia and trophic ECL cell hyperplasia were judged to not be qualitatively and quantitatively plausible in humans. The MoA in rats is unlikely to be present in humans; however, the potential effects on parietal cells cannot be excluded. Thus, the IPCS cancer-HRF is very useful for assessing human relevance.