This paper presents a framework for reducing the energy consumption of embedded real-time systems. We implemented the presented framework as both an optimization toolchain and an energy-aware real-time operating system. The framework consists of the integration of multiple techniques to optimize the energy consumption. The main idea behind our approach is to utilize trade-offs between the energy consumption and the performance of different processor configurations during task checkpoints, and to maintain memory allocation during task context switches. In our framework, a target application is statically analyzed at both intra-task and inter-task levels. Based on these analyzed results, runtime optimization is performed in response to the behavior of the application. A case study shows that our toolchain and real-time operating systems have achieved energy reduction while satisfying the real-time performance. The toolchain has also been successfully applied to a practical application.
2014 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers