The importance of vaccination has recently been widely recognized among Japanese people with a growing interest in vaccine. On the other hand, because vaccine is administrated to healthy people, it has had a difficult history due to overreaction to adverse events. With the recent rapid increase in the rate of vaccination, however, it is essential to correct the understanding of the public as to the risk and benefit of vaccine. Life spans around the world and infectious diseases are closely related, and vaccine certainly contributes to the control of the latter. Research and Development (R&D) of novel antigens is necessary for creating a next generation vaccine, a high performance device for efficient antigen delivery, and a safe adjuvant for adequate immunological response are also a key to the future. Moreover, various initiatives involving industry, academia, and government cooperation are essential to benefit the people of Japan and appropriate vaccination could actually be viewed as national security.