2000 年 120 巻 12 号 p. 1395-1407
The kidney contributes to cardiovascular homeostasis through Na+ and water excretion and renin secretion. Changes in renal functions, therefore, have a close relationship to pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases and to drug efficacy for them. The functions of the kidney are controlled by the sympathetic nervous system and various kinds of humoral factors and by their complicated interactions. Studies in the intact and working kidney in vivo have been providing physiologically significant information on the renal functions and drug actions. This review, by demonstrating data obtained in our laboratory with experiments in anesthetized dogs in vivo, refers mainly to the neural control of renal functions and renal actions of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and an adenylate cyclase activator NKH477, either of which could be used for the treatment of congestive heart failure. Electrical stimulation of the renal nerves, which could mimic the events during elevation of renal sympathetic nerve activity, induces frequency-dependent renal norepinephrine release, renal vasoconstriction, antinatriuresis and renin secretion. ANP causes potent natriuresis and suppresses the nerve stimulation-induced renin secretion and renal vasoconstriction without affecting the norepinephrine release. Effects of ANP on other vasoconstrictive and antinatriuretic stimuli such as angiotensin II and endothelin are also demonstrated. Renal actions of NKH477 had been unknown, but we revealed that NKH477 elevates renal cAMP level and causes vasodilation and natriuresis. NKH477 also suppresses the nerve stimulation-induced renal vasoconstriction, and thereby blunts the antinatriuresis. The renal actions of these drugs clarified in our study may contribute to their curative effects on congestive heart failure.