In this study, based on the insights from the case study, we discuss the causes and mechanisms of problems arising from firms’ custom orders to OSCs, focusing on the organizational characteristics of OSCs, and propose hypotheses. Since the 21st century, the main field of software development has shifted from corporate R&D departments to OSCs. The use of Linux in smartphone operating system is a prime example of this. When firms utilize OSS, custom orders by forms are necessary. Most of the research dealing with problems and their causes when firms place custom orders with OSCs has focused on the organizational characteristics of the firms themselves. However, in the cases we examined, we observed phenomena suggesting that the cause of the problem lies in the organizational characteristics of the OSCs rather than the firms. As a result of the research, three key characteristics were identified as the main causes of the problems: “loose network of independent technical managers”, “technical self-realization as the fundamental principle of decision-making”, and “abandonment of planning and control”. In addition, the logical hypothesis was presented following the OCP（Organizational Characteristic-Conduct-Problem）framework.
The strategy and practice of “workforce development” has been viewed as a “paradigm-shifting” policy and practice in the U.S. labor market and local communities that goes beyond 20th century-vocational education and training with impact on local resilience. We obtained the following findings as a preparatory research: First, we have pursued in a preparatory way the connection between the mandatory of the Workforce Investment Act（WIA）1998 and the substantive formation of workforce local governance with the case study of Seatlle-King County. The results of a survey of key local person indicate that the effective establishment of local workforce governance of local area（SKCWDC）was not only due to federal directives（WIA of 1998）, but also to the pioneering efforts of the City of Seattle since the 1990s（new concept and coordinating agency/SJI organization）. The combination of federal policy and local management is a key element of the project. Secondly, we recognized the possibility that the “from welfare to work” policy perspective, which has long been seen in the U.S. as well as in Japan, may lead to a more structured and in-depth theorization of the dynamism of welfare and work that was occurring at the time.
It did the investigation about the present situation of Japanese company’s “ Purpose” establishment. An investigation object is 91 companies carried on “PURPOSE STATEMENT LIST 2022” that SMO Inc. created. That name has “purpose” and much “importance of existence” that are that equivalent term in translation, but there is “the will”, too. The corporation that establishes “Purpose” increases rapidly from 2020. The company’s CEO often establishes and makes public a purpose within 2 years of the installation. It is often established made public with a medium-term business planning and long-term vision. And corporate purpose is often established in the influence of SDGs and ESG management. In the relation with an existing business creed, there is the one made as the case combined, additional, and completely new one, too.
Using the case studies of China’s shared bicycle and mobile battery-sharing industries, this report examines how late entrants reversed leading firms that gained a competitive advantage in emerging industries. The first entrant gained a competitive advantage in both industries by quickly occupying the first-tier city market. However, the rise of second-tier and lower-tier city markets has led to a phenomenon where the first entrant has been overtaken by a late entrant that has consolidated its position in the second-tier and lower-tier cities. This report traces the behavior of each player in the two industries over time and analyzes each player’s learning in different markets and its response to changes in the market environment. The analysis revealed that under market uncertainty, although the market entered by the late entrant grew to become the main market, the resources and capabilities accumulated by the early entrant in the market were not adaptable to the market entered by the late entrant, resulting in the late entrant overtaking the early entrant.
This research aimed to analyze of the mechanism for sustainable development of wide-area network organization, from the perspective of fluid human resource management focusing on the spatial movement of volunteers and the time axis. In Japan, recently, a movement to re-evaluate discontinued railways as heritage railway and to utilize them for the preservation of local culture and tourism resources is gaining attention. On the other hand, to preserve and utilize sustainable heritage railway, there are issues such as the financial burden on local governments and the securing of human resources. Therefore, it is necessary to construct a wide-area network organization that cooperates not only with local governments and residents, but also with volunteers who live other areas. This paper considered the necessary requirements for working adults with diverse experiences and specialized knowledge to participate continuously as volunteers. As a result of analyzing the case of the Kosaka Railway Preservation Society, it is conclusion that network organization can achieve sustainable development by coordinating different organizational evolution directions based on a bottom-up approach and time management.
To determine how small business orientation affects firm performance, this study analyzed and examined lodging businesses in Kyoto during a period of rapid growth in tourism demand from the perspective of small business orientation. The results showed that the growth of sales relative to the growth rate of the number of employees was suppressive when the number of years of operation was long. This suggests that managers who have small business orientation may avoid labor intensification of their employees even during periods of increased demand when the amount of work increases.