AIJ Journal of Technology and Design
Online ISSN : 1881-8188
Print ISSN : 1341-9463
ISSN-L : 1341-9463
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Showing 1-50 articles out of 78 articles from the selected issue
Materials and Construction
  • Kenji FUNAMOTO, Rinrin SU
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 555-560
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    According to the investigation of recent research thesis, this paper describes the compensation vale of compressive strength of concrete using fly ash. As the result, in case of fly ash cement (type-B), the compensation vale of compressive strength can apply the standard value of JASS5 on the safe side and the compensation vale of concrete with hot weather can be reduced from 6N/mm2 to 3N/mm2. In case of fly ash cement (type-C), the compensation vale of compressive strength should use the standard value of fly ash cement (type-B) of JASS5 as a reference value.

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  • Masaki UEMURA, Susumu HARADA, Tsugumichi WATANABE
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 561-566
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this research, in order to show the basic properties of Light Weight Cement Mortar used for Blending Lath Mortar including early material age, and with the implementation of related mechanical properties evaluation test, a simple test method was proposed and attempted to evaluate the occurrence characteristics of dry shrinkage cracks of early material age. The results show that the fundamental characteristics can be demonstrated by the compressive strength, crack tensile strength and flexural strength of the test specimen centering on the early material age.

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  • Hideki IGAWA, Hideo EGUCHI, Yoshinori KITSUTAKA
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 567-572
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Changes in the shielding performance of shielding containers made using heavy-weight concrete with high shielding capability against radioactivity for interim storage facilities were investigated by outdoor exposure, particularly when in contact with external water. As a result, no marked difference was found in the ratios of micropores near the surface after outdoor exposure. Water permeation tests to evaluate their shielding properties revealed that their shielding performance was equivalent to that before exposure. Within the range of this study, no marked loss in the shielding performance was observed for heavy-weight concrete.

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  • Masaki SAKAI, Yasumichi KOUSHIRO, Kazuhiro HOTTA, Masanori TSUZUKI
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 573-578
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Most underground retaining walls are constructed from massive concrete, which causes thermal cracks to appear in wall due to heat generation. Crack control joints are generally used as countermeasures to prevent cracking, but they necessitate section loss rates of approximately 20% -30% of a wall’s diameter. The authors developed a new crack-control joint, installed only in the surface region where tensile stress is caused by the temperature differential between the inner and outer layers of massive concrete. Temperature stress analysis confirmed that tensile stress was concentrated in the experimental crack-control joint. In field application to walls at a construction site, cracking was not observed anywhere other than the installation location of the experimental crack-control joint.

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  • Keita ARAKI, Jun IYAMA
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 579-584
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Welded beam-to-column connections have been widely used in Japan, however, one of the disadvantage compared to bolted connections is the difficulty and low production speed. Bolted connection may be an alternative way to higher production speed, however, very few quantitative and actual data have been reported.
    This paper reports the fabrication time for web-clamp type connections as one of the bolted connections. From the work record for an actual steel building construction using the Web-clamped type connections, the work time of each production step was aggregated and compared to that of conventional welded connections. As a result, it was shown that the fabrication time for Web-clamped connections is 30 % less than the estimated fabrication time for conventional welded connection, thanks to the smaller number of parts and the less quantity of welding.

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  • Shingo SUGIYAMA, Yasushi UEMATSU, Kosuke SATO, Takuto USUKURA, Katsuya ...
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 585-589
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    A wind resistant performance test method for mechanically-attached waterproofing systems has been developed using three pressure loading actuators (PLAs). The chamber to which specimen is attached is divided into three rooms. The PLAs generates fluctuating wind pressures in the rooms separately using the time history of wind pressures measured at different points on the building model in a wind tunnel. The test results are consistent with those of full-scale measurements performed on a test building. Furthermore, the dynamic response of the roofing system is simulated by a finite element method. The result of the analysis is consistent with the experimental results.

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  • Takayuki FUKASE, Madoka TANIGUCHI, Yukio HAMA
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 591-596
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In recent years, there are environmental changes such as an increase in high-strength concrete and progress of curing materials in cold weather concreting. Therefore, a questionnaire survey was conducted to elucidate the actual condition of cold weather concreting for ready mixed concrete suppliers and constructors. Based on 458 responses, this paper showed the implementation situation by region on cold weather concreting, and subjects of this.

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  • Naohiro NIITSUMA, Keiichi KUDO, Takeshi HIWAKI, Yoshihisa NAKATA, Shuz ...
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 597-602
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper deals with investigation in the actual state on social insurance situations and qualification allowance for rebar technician in Kanto area. Therefore, we investigated certified rebar worker and register rebar sent worker. Moreover, we conducted a questionnaire survey about social insurance situations and qualification allowance of rebar technician in Kanto area. As a result, Construction companies request deploying qualified person into construction sites, but in most cases Construction companies don’t pay rebar technician qualification allowance.

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  • Toshiaki KAGA, Hideo MIWA, Masanori TAKANABE, Shusou WADAKA, Yasuyuki ...
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 603-608
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Quantitative nondestructive evaluation technique of anchorage zone of post-installed anchors by using electromagnetic pulse method is presented. For quantitative evaluation, several indexes are introduced, which are derived from received signals and their frequency spectra. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated by experiments using anchors installed in concrete test blocks and also those installed in an existing building.

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  • Takashi YAMADA, Tatsuya YAMAZAKI
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 609-614
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this study was to develop tactile walking surface indicators for floors with fewer barriers for visually and non-visually impaired people. First, an elasticity test was conducted with 16 different materials. Second, three products with different thicknesses were produced, and interview surveys were conducted with blind and sighted people using four test products: the three that were produced and one ready-made product. The results confirmed that the products having thicknesses of 1 mm, 4 mm, and 7 mm were evaluated as having “easy walkability” and “easy recognition of end point” when compared to the ready-made product.

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  • Tsuyoshi SEIKE, Satoshi KIKUCHI, Masahiro TAKAHARA, Tadaaki TAWARADA, ...
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 615-619
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the human impact of falling debris of tempered glass for school. In this study, influence of glass debris on human was confirmed by experiment using pig skin. Glass debris of 3.35 to 8.0 mm in size were more than two-thirds of the total. As a result of dropping 100 cases on the pig’s skin, 20 cases were found the scratches on the skin. The larger the weight and speed of the glass debris, the more the scratch tended to increase.

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Structures
  • Yasuhiro MAEDA, Yoshihito OZAWA, Koji TAKAMORI, Naoto TAKEHANA, Yuta O ...
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 621-624
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The introduction of photovoltaic systems is progressing rapidly with the expansion of demand for renewable energy. However, in recent years, accidents are seen in some systems due to natural disasters caused by strong winds and large typhoons. On the other hand, wind resistance tests have not been established to evaluate the strength of the support structures for PV system. In this paper, we develop the world’s largest test apparatus designed to examine the wind pressure resistance of the ground installed PV system. By using the apparatus, the testing method is reported to evaluate the strength of the support structures for PV system.

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  • Kohei SUZUKI, Atsushi TSUNOSHITA, Sadaharu NAKAO, Hideyuki TAKASHIMA
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 625-630
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    It is aimed at finding the application limit with respect to the simple evaluation method of a stud type vibration control structure with the nonlinear viscoelastic damper. We examined the application limit by using the input level of the earthquake motion as parameters. It was confirmed that the accuracy of this evaluation method is lowered in the boundary between the damper installation story and the non-installation story. This tendency becomes prominent as the input level of the earthquake motion increases and the ductility factor increases. This method can be evaluated very accurately as long as plasticization does not occur.

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  • Yasukazu IZAWA, Masahito KOBAYASHI, Yasuyoshi HITOMI
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 631-636
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Seismically isolated buildings have low redundancy against extreme ground motions. The safety margin of seismic isolated buildings is evaluated in this report and, their design is based on the general design criteria for extremely rare ground motions using the incremental time history response analysis. The superstructure is analyzed with a moment frame model and is compared with a shear wall frame model aiming to improve the redundancy and the safety margin. In addition, time history response analyses are performed for long-period ground motions to compare the seismic performance of both models.

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  • Takuji HAMAMOTO, Masazumi KOBAYASHI, Asuka SEKINE, Akihiro TOMIOKA, Ta ...
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 637-642
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    A large amount of the ground supporting building 70 had been lost by erosion and scour in the past severe typhoon. The big score hole was recently backfilled by air mortar for stabilizing building 70. The change in dynamic characteristics of building 70 was tracked with the increase of backfill material every two hours by the vibration sensor network in Gunkanjima. It is reported that dynamic characteristics of the superstructure varies globally and locally with the progress of backfilling.

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  • Yasuhiro YOSHIDA, Hisao YAMAZAKI
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 643-648
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Static friction coefficient is increased depends on the waiting time. We confirmed this by horizontal loading experiment of building using elastic sliding bearings. In order to confirm the influence on the earthquake response, we developed a program with a friction model considering the static friction coefficient, and we conducted the seismic response analysis of the target building. As a result, at level 1, the maximum layer shear force response increased and the maximum displacement response sometimes increased. At level 2, the maximum layer shear force response was sometimes the same or increased, but the maximum displacement response sometimes increased.

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  • Eiji NOUCHI, Masaki ONOTSUKA, Shigeaki KAWAHARA, Kazushige ASARI
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 649-654
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Technical standard of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) was announced officially in 2016. Because the earthquake occurs frequently in Japan, cautious understanding on the ultimate state of CLT is necessary. Especially the shear strength of the CLT panel as a wall and its joints are important for structural design. In this paper, a double shear testing on the shear strength of CLT panel is reported. The specimens of the CLT panel were jointed using drift-pin with inserted steel plate. The results of the testing one specimen (3layer 3ply) shows the shear strength was decreased rapidly after peak load recorded.

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  • Shuzo HIROISHI, Akira OKADA, Naoya MIYASATO, Noburu NAKAMURA, Kenichi ...
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 655-659
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Timber joints composed with bolts or drift pins and steel inserted plate were studied. But experiments and numerical analysis considering gaps are recommended. In addition, experiments for whole parts, especially horizontal braces, have scarcely been reported. Therefore, authors conducted tensile and cyclic load tests of horizontal brace using glued laminated timber with the steel inserted plate.

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  • Hideyo TSUKAZAKI, Naohito KAWAI, Yukio KOMATSU, Hideyuki MAEKAWA, Shin ...
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 661-666
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    We ascertained the strength properties of a commercial dovetailjoint. Shearing tests were performed for four section sizes of a commercially available dovetailjoint to ascertain its strength properties. To additionally establish the effect of differences in tree species, the tests were conducted for three species.The optimum dimension of the shape that needs improvement was calculated by the shear yield strength estimation formula. As a result, shear yield strength is improved when koshisei of commercial dovetailjoint with cross section size 105 mm×180mm is increased by 15mm.

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  • Kazumi KAMESAKI, Shigefumi OKAMOTO, Takahisa NAKAI, Susumu KAWAMURA
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 667-672
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this study, we developed a bearing wall with higher strength using CLT for seismic reinforcement of the first floor part of wood frame-based building method housing, and experimentally confirmed the in-plane shear performance of the load bearing wall. We also attempted numerical analysis of the shear performance of the high-strength shear wall based on the performance of each element used in its construction. The results showed that our high-strength shear wall attained its target value, and applied numerical analysis was effective for evaluating its safety.

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  • Hisamitsu KAJIKAWA, Kohei IMAMIYA, Haruhiko OGAWA
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 673-678
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The authors conducted horizontal loading tests on timber assembly continuous columns as part of the development of timber skeleton structures with the objective of long-term maintenance of small buildings. Through horizontal loading tests of the continuous columns, the authors shed light on the basic structural performance of this construction method. Additionally, experimental values were recreated through incremental analysis on the basis of a deformation modal theory constructed by shearing, bending, rotating, and swaying the continuous columns. Further, the applicability of the theory was confirmed through a comparative evaluation of experimental and theoretical values for the distribution of distortion.

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  • Hideo ARAKI
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 679-684
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In order to investigate the seismic performance of the existing RC buildings more accurately, it is necessary to clarify the mechanical properties of concrete. In this paper, the mechanical properties of concrete from six existing buildings constructed in 1953-1974 before the execution of demolition are discussed. The compressive tests and the splitting tensile tests were performed with the obtained concrete cylinders. Modulus of elasticity, strain at the maximum strength, stress-strain curves and tensile strength are discussed in comparison with the estimated values.

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  • Masato NAKAMURA, Hajime OKANO, Hideyuki KINUGASA, Masayuki NAGANO, Aki ...
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 685-690
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    A preservation of a property of the building structure is important as with its safety. Based on this perspective, the studies on performance-based design incorporating economic indexes have been carried out both in the US and Japan, but the evidences of the repair costs are rarely opened. The authors carried out both integrated estimates and hearing survey of repair costs of a damaged earthquake resistant concrete wall. The estimates of the repair costs are compared with those of the data base opened in US. Finally, the repair costs corresponding to damage levels used in Japanese standards are presented.

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  • Tatsuro OTSU, Jiro TAKAGI, Tadayoshi OKADA, Yugo SATO, Yasufumi SHOJI
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 691-696
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Corrugated fold roof deck plates are widely used for roofs in steel building structures, typically connected with puddle welding. These plates are designed to have sufficient strength and stiffness against loads in out-of-plane directions such as wind and snow. Moreover, they have certain capability to resist loads in in-plane direction. In this research, in-plane shear performance of the roof deck plates is evaluated both experimentally and analytically. Detailed FEM models are created for the puddle welding connections. Inelastic behavior including local buckling and rapture of the connections and deck plates are well simulated.

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  • Ming-Chung LIOU, Tetsuya HANZAWA, Tomomi KANEMITSU, Yasutoshi TATEISHI
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 697-702
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Structures of temporary seating using scaffoldings have some connections which enable to easily assemble, disassemble and reuse members. The connections have non-linear stiffness through slipping and loosening in exchange for the high workability. The nonlinearity makes seismic responses of the structures complex. The structures are generally designed assuming that they are braced frames without considering the nonlinearity. A seismic response analytical model for the structures is suggested by static loading tests and shaking table tests using unit basic structures. It is verified that the model simulates response results of shaking table tests of large-scaled structures.

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  • Genki MIEDA, Yukihiro MATSUMOTO, Takahiro MATSUI, Hitoshi NAKAMURA
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 703-708
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In recent years, the application of repair and reinforcement method of existing structure is advanced with CFRP. In this method, on-site hand lay-up molding/bonding or CFRP plate bonding is often used. However, in the case of hand lay-up method, the construction time is increased with the number of layers. Also, the case of CFRP plates, it is difficult to apply without planar surface. Then, a method with more workability and high reinforcement effect should be developed to increase the structural performance. In this study, we propose a technique that can increase stiffness rapidly and efficiently by using pre-formable carbon fiber sheets that can solve these problems by vacuum assisted resin transfer molding and bonding method on the surface of existing structure and we demonstrate its bending strength by experiment.

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Fire Safety
Environmental Engineering
Architectural Planning and Design
  • Ryunosuke ISHIMOTO, Atsuko YASUTAKE
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 795-799
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    After summarizing the changing process of temporary housing, we consider the influence of the type of moving in, layout plan, and location on the community. As a result, it is required to improve housing quality and workability. Also in the cases that a method of moving in is lottery, about 20% of inhabitants have no interaction, and formed small communities. So it’s better for the previous community to be maintained. The plan of meeting places is rated high as an interchange place. We could not find the relationship between the scale of the sites and the community, the location and the community.

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  • Tetsu TOKUONO, Shunsuke YOKOYAMA
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 801-806
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The purposes of this study are clarifying the meaning of the open and utilization and the possibility for maintenance of the privately-owned houses as tangible cultural property. The actual situations of the maintenance and the open and utilization of the houses were grasped by the questionnaire to all privately owners. By the result of analysis, it was cleared as follows. 1)The open and utilization stimulate repairs of houses at the non-living cases. 2)The open and utilization cause owners’ will to maintain at the living cases. 3)The information sharing for operation brings the possibility for dispersion of the owners’ burdens.

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  • Hyunju CHO, Mitsuo TAKADA, Keiichiro NARUKAWA, Manabu KONO, Emiko ITAM ...
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 807-812
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper identifies residential preference of child-rearing households based on questionnaire and interview survey. The results of this paper are as follows : 1) Child-rearing households tend to move in the same area, and in area well-known; 2) Single parent households tend to value the education environment and local community; 3) Working single parent households tend to value the proximity of housing, a school and a workplace to improve efficiency of commuting and taking their children to school; 4) Child-rearing households with children aged 0to2, 3to5, and schoolchildren tend to value housing performance, educational environment, and children’s school and friendship, respect.

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  • Tatsuya NISHINO, Shohei KASAI
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 813-818
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study develops a location optimization planning framework for elder care facilities in a local city. Using a target ratio of facility supply, it is relatively easy to estimate the number of target facilities during maximum demand. A spatial perspective is added for locating new facilities and allocation of the care requiring seniors into facilities that incorporate GIS-based concentration of urban functions and daily life orientation of the elderly. This suggests that it should be possible to construct an efficient nearly optimal service supply system by locating and allocating facilities that accurately reflect spheres of daily life of the elderly. By performing similar estimates in 2040 when the elderly population is smaller, we are able to estimate facilities that can be decommissioned and/or torn down. Shortcomings attributed to estimation errors, limited assumption conditions, prioritization in locating new care facilities, and other biases in locating of current facilities are also pointed out.

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  • Ziqi ZHANG
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 819-822
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The aging issue in China is particularly severe in the rural areas. This study investigates the subjective needs towards supportive services by the elderly in two typical villages in northern Zhejiang by questionnaire and interview. The result depicts the need in daily-care, health, education, recreation and self-fulfillment by the rural elderly, showing their strong need of economic insurance and chronic diseases care. Moreover, the correlation analysis suggests the association between certain personal attributes and the choice of services. The result is expected to serve as a reference for the subdivision of elder users and a pertinent provision of corresponding services.

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  • Yutaro YAMAGUCHI, Koichi YASUDA, Norihisa KAWASHIMA
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 823-828
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this study, bottlenose dolphins existing breeding facilities are researched for improvement method in Japan. First, we investigated standards for dolphin breeding environments in the United States, Animal Welfare Regulations which is widely referred. Through interview with veterinarians, who are the dolphin breeding specialists, we obtained information about existing and ideal environments for breeding facilities. Based on that, problems of the existing facilities are analyzed, suggestions for improvement and improving method are described.

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  • Kento HIRAMATSU, Yasuaki ONODA, Haruka TSUKUDA
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 829-832
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study aimed to analyze the exhibition structures and the facility planning in museums and memorials which commemorate catastrophes, with the site of remembrance, configuration of the exhibition rooms, and the character of the facility, based on the knowledge of the historical science.
    The patterns of the room configurations are classified into some groups with the number of rooms for historical exhibition and the relationship with the specificity of the site. In the latter, the configuration would contribute to create collective memories with visitors’ notation.

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  • Kentaro YAMAGUCHI
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 833-838
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this experimental study is to clarify dimensions of toilets in a private room in facilities for the elderly. The method is the motion analysis, and the number of participants was ten people.
    ①When dimensions of toilets were less than 900mm in depth and 1500mm in frontage, it is impossible to do excretion assistance. ②When a wheelchair was placed perpendicular to a toilet, the dimensions that can be assisted without burden was 1300mm in depth and 1800mm in frontage. And when a wheelchair was placed parallel, it was 1400mm in depth and 2000mm in frontage.

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  • Eriko SAKAI, Yurika YOKOYAMA, Teruyuki ISAGAWA
    2019 Volume 25 Issue 60 Pages 839-843
    Published: June 20, 2019
    Released: June 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study focuses on the difference of going-out activities and social interaction between the residents of an inner-city temporary housing and those of suburban one in City I in Fukushima Prefecture. As results of the structural interviews to 48 residents, it was found that residents of the inner-city temporary housing went out as often as suburban ones, and both had similar level of communication with localities. In inner-city temporary housing, residents were able to determine individually ways to go and communicate, while some unsociable ones tended to be left isolated. In suburb, temporary housing residents had limited opportunity to go out because of traffic restrictions, thus they tended to communicate mainly with each other. Many of them did not want local acquaintances.

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