Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection of the eyes leads to herpes simplex virus keratitis (HSK), the main cause of infectious blindness in the world. As the current therapeutics for HSV-1 infection are rather limited and prolonged use of acyclovir (ACV)/ganciclovir (GCV) and in immunocompromised patients lead to the rise of drug resistant mutants, it underlines the urgent need for new antiviral agents with distinct mechanisms. Our study attempted to establish ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) as a new therapeutic target for HSV-1 infection by using Rac1-specific inhibitors to evaluate the in vitro inhibition of virus growth. Our results showed that increased Rac1 activity facilitated HSV-1 replication and inhibition of Rac1 activity by NSC23766 and Ehop016 significantly reduced HSV-1 replication. Thus, we identified NSC23766 and Ehop016 as possessing potent anti-HSV-1 activities by suppressing the Rac1 activity, suggesting that Rac1 is a potential target for treating HSV-1-related diseases.
Erlotinib is used to treat advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the common serious adverse events are skin disorders. The dose intensity of erlotinib should be maintained as much as possible by an appropriate control of adverse events in order to maintain its efficacy. Therefore, the management of these adverse events related to skin disorders would enable a continuous erlotinib treatment without interruption and dose reduction. This study assessed the effect of pharmaceutical consultation in outpatients who received erlotinib. Participants included patients with NSCLC who received erlotinib therapy for more than 6 months between December 2007 and March 2019. The participants were divided into two groups: the intervention group that included patients who received pharmaceutical consultation targeting outpatients by a pharmacist and the nonintervention group that included patients who did not. We retrospectively investigated patient characteristics, treatment regimens, and treatment efficacy. We included a total of 33 patients (18 and 15 patients in the nonintervention and intervention groups, respectively) in this study. The intervention group had a significantly higher median relative dose intensity (RDI) of erlotinib than the nonintervention group (P = 0.0437). In addition, the pharmaceutical consultation targeting outpatients was identified as a factor contributing to the maintenance of RDI ≥ 90% (P = 0.0269). The present study indicated that there was improvement in RDI with pharmaceutical consultation targeting outpatients with advanced NSCLC.
Antigen tests for infectious diseases are inexpensive and easy-to-use, but the limit of detection (LOD) is generally higher than that of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, which are considered the gold standard. In the present study, we combined a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with thionicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (thio-NAD) cycling to improve the LOD of antigen tests for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). For recombinant nucleocapsid proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the LOD of our ELISA with thio-NAD cycling was 2.95×10−17 moles/assay. When UV-irradiated inactive SARS-CoV-2 was used, the minimum detectable virions corresponding to 2.6×104 RNA copies/assay were obtained using our ELISA with thio-NAD cycling. The assay volume for each test was 100 μL. The minimum detectable value was smaller than that of the latest antigen test using a fluorescent immunoassay for SARS-CoV-2, indicating the validity of our detection system for COVID-19 diagnosis.
Pannexin 1 (PANX1) has been implicated in cancer emergence and progression. However, its roles in gastric cancer remain unclear. In the present study, the function and molecular mechanisms of PANX1 in gastric cancer were investigated in vitro. Two gastric cancer cell lines exhibiting low and high PANX1 expression (SNU-16 and HCG-27, respectively) were transfected using a PANX1-containingplasmid or PANX1 transcript-targeting short hairpin (sh)RNA. In addition, HCG-27 cells and PANX1-overexpressing SNU-16 cells were subjected to short interfering (si)RNA-mediated aquaporin 5 (AQP5) knockdown. In vitro cell migration (scratch) and transwell invasion assays were performed to evaluate the cell migratory and invasive abilities. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect transcripts encoding epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers. Immunofluorescence and western blotting were conducted to quantify corresponding proteins. In SNU-16 cells, PANX1 overexpression induced conversion from round (cobblestone-like) to elongated (spindle-like) morphologies and enhanced the cell migratory and invasive abilities. PANX1 knockdown had the opposite effect in HGC-27 cells. In PANX1-overexpressing SNU-16 cells, expression of SLUG, vimentin, and AQP5 was significantly upregulated, whereas expression of E-cadherin was downregulated. In HGC-27 cells, PANX1 knockdown showed the opposite effect. In both PANX1-overexpressing SNU-16 cells and untransfected HGC-27 cells, silencing of AQP5 expression significantly inhibited PANX1-induced upregulation of SLUG and vimentin expression, as well as downregulation of E-cadherin expression and enhanced migratory and invasive abilities.In summary, elevated PANX1 expression induces gastric cancer cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the associated promotion of migratory and invasive abilities by inducing expression of AQP5, which facilitates SLUG-mediated regulation of vimentin and E-cadherin expression.
Musculoskeletal and psychological complaints have increased with the widespread use of visual display terminals, and musculoskeletal pain is known to be closely related to stress. One method of experimentally inducing persistent muscle pain is repeated cold stress (RCS), and animals exposed to such stress exhibit a dysfunction in the descending pain inhibitory system. Acetaminophen (acetyl-p-aminophenol; APAP) is widely used to relieve several types of pain, including musculoskeletal pain, and is available as an OTC drug. However, the mechanism underlying its analgesic action has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we compared the analgesic effect of APAP on RCS-induced muscular hyperalgesia with those of other analgesics to identify its mechanism of action. The daily oral administration of APAP significantly suppressed the decrease in the mechanical withdrawal threshold caused by RCS, similar to the results for neurotropin but not for the cyclooxygenase inhibitor ibuprofen (IBP). Moreover, the intrathecal administration of antagonists of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 3 receptor or α2-adrenoceptor significantly abolished the analgesic effect of APAP but not of IBP. These results suggest that the analgesic effect of APAP on RCS-induced muscular pain might be exerted due to the activation of the descending pathways involving the spinal 5-HT3 receptor or α2-adrenoceptor.
Honeybee larvae have been recognized as nutrient-rich food in many countries. Although glycogen, a storage form of glucose in animals, is synthesized in honeybee larvae, there is no information on the structure of glycan and its biological activity. In this study, we successfully extracted glycogen from honeybee larvae using hot water extraction and investigated the structure and biological activity of glycan. It was found that the molecular weight of glycogen from honeybee larvae is higher than that of glycogen from bovine liver and oysters. In addition, treatment of RAW264.7 cells with glycogen from honeybee larvae resulted in a much higher production of TNF-α and IL-6 than treatment with glycogen from either bovine liver or oysters. These results suggest that the high molecular weight glycogen from honeybee larvae is a functional food ingredient with immunomodulatory activity.
Aldosterone induces cardiac electrical and structural remodeling, which leads to the development of heart failure and/or atrial fibrillation (AF). However, it remains unknown whether aldosterone-induced remodeling may modulate the efficacy of anti-AF drugs. In this study, we aimed to jeopardize the structural and functional remodeling by aldosterone in rats with aorto-venocaval shunts (AVS rats) and evaluate the effect of acehytisine in this model. An AVS operation was performed on rats (n=6, male) and it was accompanied by the intraperitoneal infusion of aldosterone (AVS+Ald) at 2.0 μg/hr for 28 days. The cardiopathy was characterized by echocardiography, electrophysiologic and hemodynamic testing, and morphometric examination in comparison with sham-operated rats (n=3), sham+Ald (n=6), and AVS (n=5). Aldosterone accelerated the progression from asymptomatic heart failure to overt heart failure and induced sustained AF resistant to electrical fibrillation in one out of six rats. In addition, it prolonged PR, QT interval and Wenckebach cycle length. Acehytisine failed to suppress AF in the AVS+Ald rats. In conclusion, aldosterone jeopardized electrical remodeling and blunted the electrophysiological response to acehytisine on AF.
The “INTERACTIONS” section of package inserts aims to provide alert-type warnings in clinical practice; however, these also include many drug–drug interactions that occur rarely. Moreover, considering that drug–drug interaction alert systems were created based on package inserts, repeated alerts can lead to alert fatigue. Although investigations have been conducted to determine prescriptions that induce drug–drug interactions, no studies have focused explicitly on the adverse events induced by drug–drug interactions. We, therefore, sought to investigate the true occurrence of adverse events caused by drug pair contraindications for coadministration in routine clinical practice. Toward this, we created a list of drug combinations that were designated as “contraindications for coadministration” and extracted the cases of adverse drug events from the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database that occurred due to combined drug usage. We then calculated the reporters’ recognition rate of the drug–drug interactions. Out of the 2,121 investigated drug pairs, drug–drug interactions were reported in 43 pairs, 23 of which included an injected drug and many included catecholamines. Warfarin potassium and miconazole (19 reports), azathioprine and febuxostat (11 reports), and warfarin potassium and iguratimod (six reports) were among the 20 most-commonly reported oral medication pairs that were contraindicated for coadministration, for which recognition rates of drug–drug interactions were high. Although these results indicate that only a few drug pair contraindications for coadministration were associated with adverse drug events (43 pairs out of 2,121 pairs), it remains necessary to translate these findings into clinical practice.
Background Astragalus Polysaccharide (APS) had shown great promise in anti-tumour activities in our previous studies. The present study was designed to investigate whether APS has synergistic effect with cisplatin on the growth-inhibitory of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and the possible mechanism. Methods Here, nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines (CNE-1) were divided into CNE-1 group, Cisplatin treatment group (2 μg/ml Cisplatin), APS treatment group (200 μg/ml APS) and combination group (2 μg/ml Cisplatin and 200 μg/ml APS). The proliferation inhibition rate of CNE-1 cells was determined by CCK-8 method after treatment with different concentrations of APS for 24, 48, and 72 h. Apoptosis rates and cell cycle retardation of cells were detected by flow cytometry. Cell migration and invasion was evaluated by transwell assay. Western blotting and qRT-PCR were performed to detect the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3, matrix metalloproteinase-2(MMP-2), p53 and matrix metalloproteinase-9(MMP-9) proteins in CNE-1 cells. Results APS have an inhibition on the proliferation of CNE-1 cells with time and dose dependence manner. Both the APS and combination therapy could promote apoptosis of CNE-1 cells, with the count of cells increased in G0/G1 and S phase while decreased in G2/M phase, and inhibited the migration and invasion of CNE-1 cells. Moreover, co-administration of Cisplatin and APS was more efficacious for the antitumor effect than either agent alone, as evidenced by the significant decrease in MMP-9 level and increase in p53. Conclusion APS, in combination with cisplatin, had significantly synergistic growth-inhibitory effect on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines, which may be related to cell cycle and migration induction.
In vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models are essential research tools for use in developing brain-targeted drugs and understanding the physiological and pathophysiological functions of the BBB. To develop BBB models with better functionalities, three-dimensional (3D) culture methods have gained significant attention as a promising approach. In this study, we report on the development of a human conditionally immortalized cell-based multicellular spheroidal BBB (hiMCS-BBB) model. After being seeded into non-attachment culture wells, HASTR/ci35 (astrocytes) and HBPC/ci37 cells (brain pericytes) self-assemble to form a spheroid core that is then covered with an outer monolayer of HBMEC/ci18 cells (brain microvascular endothelial cells). The results of immunocytochemistry showed the protein expression of several cellular junction and BBB-enriched transporter genes in HBMEC/ci18 cells of the spheroid model. The permeability assays showed that the hiMCS-BBB model exhibited barrier functions against the penetration of dextran (5 kDa and 70 kDa) and rhodamine123 (a P-glycoprotein substrate) into the core. On the other hand, facilitation of 2-NBDG (a fluorescent glucose analog) uptake was observed in the hiMCS-BBB model. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor-alpha treatment elicited an inflammatory response in HBMEC/ci18 cells, thereby suggesting that BBB inflammation can be recapitulated in the hiMCS-BBB model. To summarize, we have developed an hiMCS-BBB model that possesses fundamental BBB properties, which can be expected to provide a useful and highly accessible experimental platform for accelerating various BBB studies.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most prevalent malignant primary brain tumor with a high recurrence rate. Despite multimodal therapy including surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, the median survival time after the initial diagnosis of GBM is approximately 14 months. Since cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered the leading cause of cancer recurrence, glioblastoma stem cell-targeted therapy is a promising strategy for the treatment of GBM. However, because CSC heterogeneity has been implicated in the difficulties of CSC-target therapy, more in-depth knowledge of CSC biology is still required to develop novel therapies.
In this study, we established single cell-derived tumorspheres from human glioblastoma U87MG cells. One of these tumorspheres, P4E8 clone, showed CSC-like phenotypes, such as self-renewal capacity, expression of CSC markers, resistance to anti-cancer agents, and in vivo tumorigenicity. Therefore, we used P4E8 cells as a cell-based model of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). Gene expression analysis using microarray indicated that the most highly expressed genes in P4E8 cells compared to the parental U87MG were PC3-secreted microprotein (MSMP). Furthermore, MSMP was expressed in patient-derived GSCs and human glioma tissues at the protein level, implying that MSMP might contribute to glioma development and progression.
This article has been retracted by the Editorial Committee of The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan because it contains scientific misconduct. Although the data published in this article were generated in part by the first author, the authors violated authorship and sponsorship protocol.