Even though advanced driving assistance systems are rapidly developing, those system are not yet full-automatic, but still users should learn how to use it. This study, using a driving game, tried to watch those learning processes, by introducing and changing an automation system after learning to manual operation. Following manual tracking trials, participants were asked to track with using automation system. The automation capability was 60% or 80% in Phase 1, and 70% in Phase 2 (100% means perfect tracking ability). Results showed that experiencing the 60% automation in Phase 1 induced the higher using rate of the automation system in Phase 2. Profound analysis indicated that participants in 60% condition learned a role-sharing relationship between the manual and the automation system, which in turn facilitated using the automation system in Phase 1 and 2. These findings implicated importance of the role-sharing cognition at the learning to automation assistance systems.
To investigate how people learn to use some ICT equipment, we used Groton Maze Learning Task (GMLT) with embedding some guiding information. In the experiment, we set three conditions: One with the forward-direction guides (easy to find their meaning), the other with the backward-direction guides (difficult to find their meaning), and the control condition (no guide information), examining how young and older adults (YA/OA) learned to use them to find out the correct route. The results showed the both age groups with the forward-direction guides could use the guiding information, showing decrease of the duration time and legal errors. In contrast, though YA with the backward-direction guides showed the same size learning facilitation as the forward-direction condition, OA didn’t show any privilege with the backward-direction guides. Those findings indicated the difficulties to use backward-direction guiding for OA may make their learning difficulties when they try to use some ICT equipment.
Can people correctly match an unfamiliar voice to a static image of a face? There’re conflicting reports: Kamachi et al. (2003) showed participant at chance level performance, whereas Mavica & Barenholtz (2013) observed above chance. We hypothesized that this contradiction may be due to the variability of difficulties in face-voice matching among the models, and examined whether the variability would be explained by similarity between the personality impressions formed from a face image and voice. We conducted a matching task with a static face image and voice, and measured the personality impressions received from the face image and voice. The result demonstrated that overall accuracy of the matching task was significantly above chance. More importantly, face-voice matching performance was correlated with the similarity between the face and voice ratings for the model, suggesting that the personality impression from the model’s face and voice plays an important role in face-voice matching.
Embodied agents quipped to the information systems make communication between users and agents more smoothly, which in turn lead users to more high order usage. We have a hypothesis that human-like interaction with agents may be based on user’s perceptions of animacy to the agent. In order to investigate whether users perceiving animacy to the agents or not, and also to know how those animacy perception will be affected by the physical embodiment of agent, we executed an experiment to compare three agent conditions with a microwave oven: the embodied condition equipped with the antheropomorphization robots shaped eyes and arms, the voice_only condition equipped with the agent’s voice, and the control condition without agent. Each of 36 participants who were older adults (aged over 65) and younger adults (undergrad students) executed the usability test of the oven and evaluated the subjective perceptions of its animacy. The result showed two type of animacy; lifelikeness and intelligence. Older adults showed increasing with both types of animacy when the agent had the embodiment, whereas younger adults decreased evaluation of intelligence with the physical embodiment. Based on the differences between two age groups, we would like to propose a model of agency, perception of animacy, and the base system.
Congruent visual feedback increases perceived duration of hand action. Action-outcome congruence is fundamental to sense of agency and contributes to time distortion. We therefore hypothesized that sense of agency over visual feedback of the moving hand would increase perceived duration of action. Participants moved their hand to imitate models of hand poses. To manipulate sense of agency, we provided video feedback of their hand movement, with spatio-temporal biases (spatial: upright or inverted; temporal: 50-1500 ms delays). Participants then judged whether the video was of short or long duration in comparison with videos presented in previous trials. They also reported whether they felt in control of the hand movement in the video. Delayed videos were judged as “short” and “no agency” more frequently than synchronous videos. Results showed subjective time contraction caused by delayed visual feedback of hand action, suggesting that sense of agency modulates time perception during action.
To study how visuo-perceptual and visuo-motor processes contribute to action execution, we investigated kinematics of real and pantomimed prehension. Two parietal patients and 18 control participants performed pantomimed prehension followed by a session of real grasping. Participants gazed directly at the target object or at a fixation point (approx. 10 deg from the target) and were subjected to a 5-s visual occlusion. In the pantomimed prehension session, the target was removed during visual occlusion, while in the real grasping session, the target was not removed. Patient MFL, who was mainly damaged in dorso-dorsal stream, was more impaired during real grasping and showed improvement of grip scaling for pantomimed prehension especially in peripheral visual condition. Patient MCS whose lesion also includes ventro-dorsal stream did not show such improvement. The results suggest different roles of dorso- and ventro-dorsal streams in action execution.
Shimamura et al. (2006) showed that a face of happy expression was remembered better than that of other expressions. In the present experiment, we examined the effect of observer’s facial activity elicited by subconscious facial expression mimicry in the happy face advantage. In the study phase, participants were shown faces with emotional expressions (happy, surprise, anger, fear) In the subsequent test phase, they had to determine the expressions that had been displayed at study phase. The participants’ expression mimicry was manipulated by having they hold chopsticks in their mouse in ways that facilitated the muscles typically associated with smiling during study and/or test phases. The results showed that recognition memory of faces of fearful expressions were interfered when the participants’ facial muscles was manipulated in the test phase, suggesting that observer’s facial feedback may play a important role in retrieval processes of face memory.
The present study investigated how much the strategic factor contributes to the differences between the hand-use and the tool-use grasping in motor control. We predicted that even reach-to-grasp movements with a novel tool would show the hand-like aperture profile when the strategic factors were excluded. To test this idea, we employed fast movements to grasp a target, where participants were instructed not to care if they failed to grasp the target object. The results showed that the kinematic profiles of the grasping movements with using the novel tool became similar to that of hand-use grasping as the velocity increased. The present study implies that the shared computation principle is used for motor planning in both hand-use and tool-use grasping, and that the awkwardness-dependent strategy may be driven to prevent the target object from dropping off from the tips of the effectors.
The modern Japanese writing system consists of different scripts, including Kanji and Katakana, which differ greatly in appearance and in customary usage. We examined how different Japanese scripts affected a categorization task. Native Japanese participants were presented with three Japanese prefecture or city names written in Kanji or Katakana and were asked to choose the two prefectures or cities that they thought belonged to the same group. Results of experiments showed that categorization performance was affected by the script in which the city names were represented.
Emergent usage is the concept in human-artifact interaction, which assumes that users are developing their own method of use through their interaction with the artifact, and it is especially important when people try to use new equipment based on Informational-and-Communicational Technology (ICT). Previous studies indicated that older adults showed less emergent usage, which caused their difficulties to learn to use ICT equipment. In this study, an experiment was executed to see whether intergenerational communication facilitate emergent usage behavior. Homogeneration (8 each pairs of older-older and young-young) or Heterogeneration pairs (7 older-young adults pairs) were told to play in free fashion with Kapla, simple rectangle building blocks. As results, multiple measurements indicated that not only older adults but also young adults showed more emergent usage behaviors in Heterogeneration than Homogeneration pairs. Further analysis will be useful, about what kind of interaction is important to elicit emergent usage.
Although response time is one of the most important index in psychological research, proper interpretation and analysis method for response time are not established. We made a response time model based on brain structure and physics model that can reproduce brain phenomenon concerning memory recall. Proposed model is not only a fitting function that can fit to empirical response time but also informative because the model predicts two kinds of error. The first type of error is attributed to the order of process and the second type of error is derived from the physics model. We performed an experiment using Stroop task and confirmed that there are many errors in trials which has wide distribution. This result corresponded to the prediction by proposed model. Then, the model might be a good model that captured the essence of decision-making phenomenon.
Although there is a tremendous variety of images that elicit negative emotion, the causes of the emotion are quite different. Trypophobia is the fear of clustered objects, such as lotus seed heads. Cole & Wilkins (2013) concluded that the images inducing trypophobia have unique characteristics in spatial frequency properties. In the present experiment, we measured saccade to examine whether trypophobic images would affect attentional processes in a different manner from those of fearful and neutral images. Participants’ task was to make a saccade in the direction that was indicated by a cue while presenting four images as distractor in the periphery. The results showed that the endpoints of the saccades were deviated toward a location of a trypophobic image, compared with the other types of images, suggesting that the physical characteristics of trypophobic images affect attentional processes differently from the other kinds of emotional images.
Stimulus features (e.g., color) previously associated with reward capture attention (e.g., Anderson, 2013). However, the mechanism of the value-based attentional capture is still unknown. In all previous studies, the feature associated with reward was presented during performing a task, suggesting that it is necessary for the feature to be presented in the task display. In the current study, we presented the reward-associated feature before (fixation period) or after (feedback period) the task display in the flanker task and examined whether the value-based capture occurred or not. The value-based attentional capture was examined in the subsequence visual search. Results showed that the value-based attentional capture was only observed when the reward-associated feature was presented during the task display. These findings indicate that presentation of reward-associated feature at the time of performing the task is necessary for the value-based attentional capture.
The length effect in word recognition refers to the phenomenon that the shorter a word is, the faster it is recognized than longer words. Korean studies reported some evidence for the opposite effect of word length: Shorter words, mono-syllabic words in particular, had a disadvantage in the lexical decision tasks (Kim, 2010; Park, 1993). One explanation for the disadvantage of very short words is that there is ideal word length—the most frequent length-- for each language. To test the ideal length, we conducted an experiment exploited the fact that there is no monosyllabic Korean verb because a verb must have an ending that marks its identity as a verb. Inconsistent with the ideal word length, the results showed the bi-syllabic word disadvantage. To develop an alternative to the ideal length hypothesis, we pay attention to the role of morphological transparency in modulating the length effect. The implications of the results to commonality and specificity of languages and writing systems were discussed.
The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the difference between language control and cognitive control mechanism. Also, we investigate changes in cognitive control ability caused by studying foreign language. Two kinds of tasks have been used in the experiment, language switch task and response conflicted task. English was chosen as a foreign language to learn for four weeks. English listening comprehension condition was separated into two groups: one group is a pause group and the other group is a non-pause group. Language switch task used numeral stimuli and had two kinds of color conditions: one color condition was Korean reading and the other color condition was English reading. Response conflict task used two kind of conditions, congruent condition and incongruent condition. The result of this study is that participants’ reaction time was faster than before they studying English but there was no difference between the two conditions. However, item analysis shows significant differences between the conditions.
Three experiments were performed to examine whether the ambiguity advantage effect is determined by the number of meanings of Korean dictionary or of meanings consciously retrieved and to see if that effect is task-specific. In experiment 1 and 2, the lexical decision task was used, and in experiment 3, the word naming task was employed. The results of the experiment 1 and 2 showed the ambiguity advantage effect is mostly modulated by the number of meanings reported consciously by subjects not by the count of dictionary meanings. And also this effect was found in the word naming task, implicating that this effect is caused by the lexical stages common to two different tasks of lexical decision and naming.
Present study used event-related potential (ERPs) during visual priming task to examine the time course of the Korean prefix morpheme, semantic and orthographic component using a masked priming paradigm. The time windows of 300~500ms shows difference between orthography and semantic component. Within the time window 550~750ms, morphological component represent difference among orthographic and semantic component. The findings support that morphology has an effect on word recognition independently. Also, it concluded tentatively that morphological index dissociate from orthographic and semantic component is 550~750ms time windows.
TThis research was originally designed to contribute to the growing literature of deception-detection by examining the behavioral/neural differences between (1) lies of what people say (Speech-Lies) and of what people do (Action-Lies) and (2) a single liar in Exp. 1 versus a paired liar with detector in Exp. 2 & 3. Three experiments were conducted to examine the neural correlates for lies of Action (enactment of a presented sentence) and Speech (reading aloud of a presented sentence) in Exp. 1-3, and also for its detection in Exp. 2-3. Here, specifically, we focused on the behavioral and neural aspects of lie Detector in a face-to-face communication condition. The NIRS data of Detector in the left IPL and the right IFG for Lie showed higher neural activity than Truth, nevertheless the detection rates of a Detector did not show differences between Truth and Lie of the paired Liar.
We examined the effect of the working memory capacity (WMC) of older adult participants on tasks using touch interfaces, by using an extreme-groups design. Older participants (N = 100) completed a single tapping task and WMC tasks. To test if the response time in the single tapping task differed as a result of the WMC, We performed a 2 x 2 Analyses of Variance with WMC (high, n = 25 /low, n = 25) as the between-subjects factors and the tapping interface (a touch pen, a finger, or a computer mouse) as within-subject factors. The results suggested that the response time of participants with high WMC was shorter than the response time of participants with a low WMC, when using a touch pen and a computer mouse interface. The need for developing touch interfaces that are appropriate for individual differences in the WMC of aged people is discussed.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influences of differences in learning procedure (intentional or incidental) and type of associated item (category name or adjective) on recall and recognition. It was hypothesized that regardless of the intention to memorize, (a) when category names are presented, since they would increase the possibility that concepts close to the to-be-memorized items would appear, false recall and recognition rate of non-presented items would increase, (b) when adjectives are presented, since they would restrict the concept of the to-be-memorized item, false recall and recognition rate of non-presented items would decrease. Results indicated that under the incidental learning condition, a tendency in support of the hypothesis was found only in recognition. On the other hand, under the intentional learning condition, although it was not statistically significant, a tendency in support of the hypothesis was found in recall and recognition.
The process of stabilizing a memory trace after initial encoding is called memory consolidation. In the learning of a motor sequence (sequence learning), memory consolidation has a function to reorganize the representation of a learned sequence, which results in improvement of motor performance. We investigated whether the memory consolidation by blocking information inputs after learning would also reorganize memory representation. Additionally, we investigated the memory consolidation in inhibitory learning, the learning of inhibitory control such as negative priming. In the experiment, each subject performed normal and inhibitory sequence learning. Subsequently, he/she took a rest with minimum information inputs for 10 minutes in order to induce memory consolidation. The results showed that, a wakeful 10-minutes rest improved motor performance in normal learning, which suggests that the representation of normally learned sequence was reorganized during the rest. On the other hand, inhibitory learning did not occur, which requires further investigation.
This research investigated the influence of test formats and combination of test formats on the testing effect. To investigate the test formats and combination of test formats, following studying a target, participants were asked to restudy the target, test with same format (recall, recall or recognition, recognition) or different format (recall, recognition or recognition, recall) twice. Then, 1 week after restudying or testing, participants took final free recall test. The result of this study shows the effect of test formats and restudying. In many previous studies, prior testing enhanced greater retention than restudying. However, in this study, testing a target doesn’t necessarily enhance memory retention over restudying. It suggests that rather than simply testing a target, the mnemonic strategy used in studying and restudying can improve the retention. Test format itself rather than combination of test formats affect the retention and has different effects on the retention.
Retrieval information was promoted by prior related information(priming effect). In semantic network model(Collins & Loftus, 1975), related representations have a link, and The model explain priming effect by spreading activation. Other research suggest that contexts promote memory of related information. Thus, it is guess that contexts have an effect to design on memory arrangement in semantic network. In this research, examine that participants make different answers to one word in vary contexts, with free emission method. Context F referred the item’s function, Context D referred the item’s functional disorder, and Context U didn’t refer the item’s function. On the one hand, Context F was not different of Word factor. One the other hand, Context F had less answers than Context D & U on apple. Thus, it is suggested that the function of item is important cue in retrieval system.
We checked the effect of the sleep on auditory perception using Noise-vocoded speech sounds (NVSS). NVSS has the amplitude envelope of the speech signal, whereas the detail spectral structure was repealed with band noise. In this study, we examined facilitative effect of sleep on -perceptual learning of NVSS. Ten Japanese speakers participated in this experiment. One session consisted of Japanese words in NVSS (four moras words). The subjects divided in two groups and each group was given a pretest, training, post-test 1 and after a 12-h retention period post-test 2. For first group started at 9:00 AM, and the post-test 2 were given after 12 h of waking at 21:00 PM. For the second started at 21:00 PM, and the post-test 2 were given at 9:00 AM the next day after 12 h including sleeping period. As results, the improvement of results by the sleep was not seen definitely.
Human memory is not a mere record of experienced event, but is affected by the knowledge for the event, that is, the schema. When we experience an action which is inconsistent with particular place, we can feel bizarreness, and can recollect such emotion afterwards. This is the effect of "consistency with place-schema." In the present study, in addition to place-schema, we examined the effect of the consistency of object-schema; whether the action can use left objects. We predicted that the effect of place-schema would be bigger than that of object-schema. In order to verify our prediction, we presented four kinds of actions; place-consistent and object-consistent, place-consistent and object-inconsistent, place-inconsistent and object-consistent, and place-inconsistent and object-inconsistent. Then we conducted memory tests. As a result, place-inconsistency provoked more recollections of felt emotion than object-inconsistency. Our prediction was supported.
Observation inflation means that observing an action of another person can lead to false memories of having performed it by oneself. We examined whether the intentional observation is essential for observation inflation. Fifty-four undergraduates participated in the experiment, which consisted of three phases. In the first phase, participants performed 15 actions and read aloud 15 action statements. Secondly, they observed videos which showed another person’s actions. Two weeks later, they took a source-memory test which consists of 60 action statements. In the second phase, participants were required to pay attention to actor’s performance (intentional observation condition), or to background information (non-intentional observation condition). As a result, observation inflation was observed only in the former condition. This suggested that the intentional observation of other person is essential for the effect.