Combination treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) plus prednisolone is effective for prevention of cardiovascular complications in children with Kawasaki disease (KD). However, administration of prednisolone for approximately 20 d in this regimen causes adrenocortical suppression in a high proportion of treated children. To establish a simple method to screen for this suppression, we performed a prospective study on 72 children with KD treated with this regimen in our institution from February 2012 to March 2014. By performing ROC analysis of 21 initial patients treated between February and June 2012, a serum cortisol value at 09:00 h of 5 mcg/dL was established as a threshold for intact adrenocortical function, which is equivalent to a peak serum cortisol value of higher than 15 mcg/dL in the CRH stimulation test. Then, we applied this screening test to 51 subsequent patients treated between July 2012 and March 2014. Approximately 90% of the patients with morning serum cortisol values above 5 mcg/dL 2 to 6 mo after the cessation of initial prednisolone treatment had peak serum cortisol values exceeding 15 mcg/dL, suggesting the efficacy of this approach.
Purpose of developing the guidelines: The first guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) were published as a diagnostic handbook in Japan in 1989, with a focus on patients with severe disease. The “Guidelines for Treatment of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (21-Hydroxylase Deficiency) Found in Neonatal Mass Screening (1999 revision)” published in 1999 were revised to include 21-OHD patients with very mild or no clinical symptoms. Accumulation of cases and experience has subsequently improved diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Based on these findings, the Mass Screening Committee of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology further revised the guidelines for diagnosis and treatment. Target disease/conditions: 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Users of the guidelines: Physician specialists in pediatric endocrinology, pediatric specialists, referring pediatric practitioners, general physicians; and patients.
Purpose of developing the guidelines: Mass screening for congenital hypothyroidism started in 1979 in Japan, and the prognosis for intelligence has been improved by early diagnosis and treatment. The incidence was about 1/4000 of the birth population, but it has increased due to diagnosis of subclinical congenital hypothyroidism. The disease requires continuous treatment, and specialized medical facilities should make a differential diagnosis and treat subjects who are positive in mass screening to avoid unnecessary treatment. The Guidelines for Mass Screening of Congenital Hypothyroidism (1998 version) were developed by the Mass Screening Committee of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology in 1998. Subsequently, new findings on prognosis and problems in the adult phase have emerged. Based on these new findings, the 1998 guidelines were revised in the current document (hereinafter referred to as the Guidelines). Target disease/conditions: Primary congenital hypothyroidism. Users of the Guidelines: Physician specialists in pediatric endocrinology, pediatric specialists, physicians referring patients to pediatric practitioners, general physicians, laboratory technicians in charge of mass screening, and patients.
Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1) is a disease characterized by neonatal salt loss due to aldosterone resistance. Two types of PHA1 are known: an autosomal recessive systemic form and an autosomal dominant renal form. The cause of the renal form of PHA1 is heterozygous mutations in NR3C2, which encodes the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). We encountered two female Japanese infants with the renal form of PHA1 and analyzed NR3C2. The two patients had poor weight gain, and one was developmentally delayed. Genetic analysis identified one novel mutation (c.492_493insTT, p.Met166LeufsX8) and one previously reported mutation (p.R861X). The two produced a premature stop codon, resulting in haploinsufficiency of the MR. In conclusion, genetic analysis of NR3C2 is useful for diagnosis and planning therapeutic strategies.