Purpose behind developing these guidelines: Over one decade ago, the “Guidelines for the Treatment of Graves’ Disease with Antithyroid Drug, 2006” (Japan Thyroid Association (JTA)) were published as the standard drug therapy protocol for Graves’ disease. The “Guidelines for the Treatment of Childhood-Onset Graves’ Disease with Antithyroid Drug in Japan, 2008” were published to provide guidance on the treatment of pediatric patients. Based on new evidence, a revised version of the “Guidelines for the Treatment of Graves’ Disease with Antithyroid Drug, 2006” (JTA) was published in 2011, combined with the “Handbook of Radioiodine Therapy for Graves’ Disease 2007” (JTA). Subsequently, newer findings on pediatric Graves’ disease have been reported. Propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced serious hepatopathy is an important problem in pediatric patients. The American Thyroid Association’s guidelines suggest that, in principle, physicians must not administer PTU to children. On the other hand, the “Guidelines for the Treatment of Graves’ Disease with Antithyroid Drug, 2011” (JTA) state that radioiodine therapy is no longer considered a “fundamental contraindication” in children. Therefore, the “Guidelines for the Treatment of Childhood-Onset Graves’ Disease with Antithyroid Drug in Japan, 2008” required revision.
Some children born small for gestational age (SGA) have short stature and are at an increased risk of developing psychosocial or behavioral problems. Here we evaluated the efficacy of GH and its effects on the timing of pubertal onset in a 3-yr extension of our previous 2-yr (total 5 yr) multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial of 65 short Japanese children born SGA. Patients received low or high doses of GH (0.033 or 0.067 mg/kg/day, respectively). Age at onset of puberty was not statistically different for male and female patients receiving high- or low-dose GH. After the onset of puberty, no difference in height gain was observed between the two GH dose groups. At the onset of puberty, height standard deviation scores for chronological age of boys and girls improved significantly in both dose groups with evidence of a dose-response effect. Mean bone age/chronological age ratios in the low- and high-dose groups were significantly increased compared with baseline, being significantly greater in the high-dose group at 5 yr after treatment initiation. Delayed bone age at baseline was close to chronological age following GH treatment. GH treatment, especially high-dose GH, induced advanced bone age in short children born SGA.
We performed this study to evaluate the associations of hypothyroidism with clinical severity and the occurrence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at initial diagnosis among pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). 330 children with T1DM who referred to Diabetes Clinic were enrolled. The medical records were e valuated and a blood sample was drawn from patients for measuring thyroid function and antibodies, blood glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels. Hypothyroidism was detected in 9.6% of children with T1DM and was associated with higher rates of DKA (OR = 3.15, 95%CI = 1.48–6.71) and younger age at initial diagnosis (7.3 ± 3.2 vs. 10.1 ± 2.5, p = 0.04), higher levels of HbA1C upon enrolment (9.8 ± 2.2 vs. 8.8 ± 1.9, p = 0.02) and the requirement for higher insulin doses to control the disease (0.9 ± 0.42 vs. 0.81 ± 0.2, p = 0.03) compared to children with T1DM and normal thyroid function. Additionally children with T1DM and hypothyroidism had significantly higher rates of anti-TPO antibodies (p < 0.001), consanguinity in their parents (p =0.01), and family history of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.02) in their first degree relatives. In conclusion autoimmune hypothyroidism is prevalent among children with T1DM and is associated with a more aggressive disease at initial presentation, poorly controlled T1DM, and requirement for higher Insulin doses for controlling the disease.
Although existing guidelines recommend long-term follow-up of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs), their fertility has not been fully investigated in Japan. To address this issue, we organized a working panel consisting of medical specialists in foundation hospitals. We conducted questionnaire surveys targeting pediatric endocrinologists regarding reproduction in pediatric and adolescent cancer patients in collaboration with the CCS committee of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology (JSPE). The first questionnaire was sent to 178 directors or councilors of the JSPE, and the second was sent to those who had provided answers on their experience with childbirth or fertility preservation. A total of 151 responses (84.8%) were obtained in the first survey. In the second survey, the response rate was 100% (39 respondents). There were 27 answers describing experiences with childbirth (16 from partners of male CCSs, 22 from female CCSs). A few cases of premature birth and low birth weight were reported. There were 25 answers describing experiences with fertility preservation; 21 were from male and 17 from female CCSs. It was mainly physicians who recommended fertility preservation. This nationwide questionnaire survey revealed that a limited number of Japanese pediatric endocrinologists had experience with childbirth and fertility preservation in CCSs. A further long-term follow-up study of their fertility is needed.
A clinical diagnosis of septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is made when two or more of the classical triad of optic nerve hypoplasia, pituitary hormone abnormalities or midline brain defects. To date, a clinical study of SOD, regarding its endocrinological features in particular, has not been undertaken in Japan. We retrospectively evaluated 14 SOD patients at our institution. Hormonal dysfunction was present in 78% of cases: ten cases presented combined hypopituitarism and one case presented precocious puberty. GHD and hypothyroidism were the most common endocrinopathies. A thin pituitary stalk and a gradual decrease in hormone secretion were the main characteristics. SOD patients usually visited ophthalmologists during early infancy because of eye problems; however, the medical examination did not always lead to endocrine assessments being made. Consequently, children who have eye problems with optic nerve hypoplasia should undergo head MRI imaging. If diagnosed with SOD, it is very important to evaluate pituitary functions. Their endocrinological status should be followed for a long time, even if they do not exhibit any endocrinological problems at evaluation.
Partial lipodystrophy (PD), a condition similar to metabolic syndrome without obesity, is one of the late complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) performed during childhood. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of PD. A cross-sectional survey was performed in a children’s hospital, targeting patients treated for a malignancy or hematological disorder, and who were disease-free for > 24 mo. PD was defined as gluteal lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy of the cheeks or neck associated with diabetes and/or fatty liver disease. In total, 65 patients were enrolled. Six patients (9.2%) were judged to have PD, all of whom had received 10–14 Gy total body irradiation. Compared with the patients without PD, patients with PD were older at investigation (P < 0.01), had a longer elapsed time following HSCT (P < 0.01), had more frequent disease recurrence (P < 0.05), and were more likely to have undergone multiple HSCT (P < 0.05). In addition, they had higher blood pressure and showed higher levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglycerides, whereas their adiponectin levels were significantly lower. In conclusion, a large number of patients developed PD following HSCT, with unfavorable metabolic profiles at a later age, especially when they experienced a complex disease course.