In educational study, an encounter with the Other is seen as an important moment in ethical growth. Through the encounter, the Other is said to challenge one's existing identity and give one the responsibility to react ethically. A theoretical base of this is Emmanuel Lévinas's conception of subjectivity. Based on its interpretation, many theorists hold that Lévinas discussed the process of the production of subjectivity. Educational discourses on Lévinas, however, miss the fact that he avoided considering the production of subjectivity as a process and narrative. In this paper I aim to clarify the implication of Lévinas's conception of subjectivity for educational study. The first section explains the reason behind the application of Lévinas's conception of subjectivity to educational theory and shows the tendency of the application. Educational discourses on Lévinas's subjectivity have the tendency to focus on the openness and passivity of the self; thus, they miss the temporality. The second section clarifies how educational theorist Clarence Joldersma reconsiders the educational relationship by applying Lévinas's conception of subjectivity. To elucidate Lévinas's treatment of the production of subjectivity, the third section shows his attempt to discuss the production of subjectivity without narrative form. In the fourth section, it turns out that Lévinas allows various interpretations of his conception of subjectivity, and our interpretations complement his conception. His conception of subjectivity implies that educational theorists need to consider the self-contradictory character of an argument about the production of subjectivity.
This paper focuses on faculty training facilities at private elementary schools in Okayama Prefecture following the end of WWI, primarily between 1920 and 1922. It also contributes fresh perspective to the literature on the means by which elementary school teachers were trained, using a route other than that of normal schools in prewar Japan. The author has thus far researched the elementary school teacher training business in private elementary faculty training facilities in Okayama which began in the 1900s following the establishment of a compulsory four-year education system. As a continuation of that research, this paper focuses on the end of WWI, a period marked by the decline of elementary school teachers following the wartime climate. It focuses on the significance of and manner in which private elementary school training facilities emerged in the form of authorized secondary education test training facilities for faculty, thereby securing their continuation amidst the withdrawal and decline of private elementary faculty training facilities. This phenomenon suggests that a proper evaluation of primary education faculty training requires incorporating secondary education faculty training into the scope of research.
This paper focuses on changes in gender-role attitudes through studies on fathering support lectures, and thus obtains feedback which can improve future lectures. The primary attention falls on men's gender-role attitudes, and how the attitudes initiated in the 1960s underwent significant changes between the 1970s and 2000s. This paper concludes that in the high economic growth period of the 1960s, the concept of fathering support lectures did not exist. Men's attitudes began to change in the following decades and the possibility that men should fill a supporting role for women had caused concern. At this time, people also recognized the importance of the child care issue. The findings in this study indicate the potential demand for fathering support lectures. In the 1990s, fathers' influences on infant development became a topic of concern. Meanwhile, many studies began paying more attention to the phenomenon. This period can be termed the growing stage. In the coming Act on Advancement of Measures to Support Raising Next-Generation Children, the government gets involved in the lectures. As a result, future lectures about fathers' lifestyles are required. In addition, lectures about father-child activities are also important in the future.
This study explored how children familiar with daily life in childcare facilities deal with the behavioral expectations of a kindergarten teacher. Five-year-old children (N=53) in two kindergarten classrooms were analyzed during circle time using the "secondary adjustments" as the framework that was advocated by Goffman. The results identified 16 variations of means organized into five broader concepts and four variations of unauthorized ends from 38 cases of children's behaviors as secondary adjustments. The following points were noted: (1) the children responded to the teacher by making witty responses during circle time; (2) the children primarily felt the urge to walk around and communicate with friends because the teacher expected them to sit and listen; (3) the children spent the group activity time pursuing personal interests; and (4) for the children, pursuing personal interests was compatible with engaging in the group activity of the class.
The pedagogical value of these findings lies in the depiction of children who enrich themselves through activities set by a teacher.
This paper discusses the health services for school children in early 20th century England and Wales. Health services for school children provided school meals, medical inspection, and treatment. These services started by way of the 1906 Education Act (School Meals) and the 1907 Education Act (Administrative Provisions). These Acts have been viewed as the origins of liberal welfare reform. Although these acts were initiated by the government, similar health services had previously been provided by charity groups. In this paper, I clarify the relationship between these acts and the Charity Organisation Society (COS), which was one such charity group. They have often been viewed as opponents of state intervention, but this argument is one-sided. This paper's aim is therefore to elucidate how COS reacted to and assessed the aforementioned 1906 Education Act and the 1907 Education Act through the analysis of Charity Organisation Review.
This study investigates how children utilize "maintained" material environments in kindergarten classrooms. In this study, "maintained" material environments are spaces with regular exhibitions from teachers or spaces that children can utilize freely. This study explores how children play with tops that teachers introduced into this space. Although initially a new environment, the children soon adapted to playing there. Case study data were obtained by observing and recording the children playing with tops. Episodes were then generated from the data, and analyzed qualitatively. The results display two effects. First, children can utilize "maintained" material environments creatively, since a few of them enjoyed playing with tops outside the boundaries marked on the board. Second, various children moved away from the others to spend their free time playing with tops by themselves. These results suggest that teachers can design environments in the classroom that take into account the perspective of the "maintained" environment.